*(English)*Zbl 1064.14030

This paper looks into the relationship between dessins d’enfants and their associated Riemann surfaces. A dessin $\mathcal{D}$ on a topological surface is an embedding of a bipartite graph whose complement has simply connected components. Associated to such a dessin there is a triangle group ${\Gamma}$, whose periods are determined by the valencies of the graph, and a finite index subgroup $H$ of ${\Gamma}$, uniquely determined up to conjugacy, such that the quotient of the upper half plane by $H$ is a Riemann surface $R\left(\mathcal{D}\right)$. This is referred to as the Riemann surface underlying the dessin. The surface is smooth Belyi if $H$ is torsion-free. The surface is quasiplatonic if the dessin is regular, meaning in addition that $H$ is normal in ${\Gamma}$. If moreover the dessin happens to have no free edges (i.e. it is clean), then $R\left(\mathcal{D}\right)$ becomes platonic. One first result in this paper asserts that quasiplatonic surfaces of genus $\le 2$ are platonic, and then gives an example in genus 3 where this is no longer true. The authors also observe that every smooth dessin of genus 2 is arithmetic (i.e. the associated triangle group ${\Gamma}$ is an arithmetic Fuchsian group).

The main focus of this paper is the study of the injectivity of the map $\mathcal{D}\mapsto R\left(\mathcal{D}\right)$. The authors specialize to the family of dessins which are uniform maps and hence ask whether two non-isomorphic such dessins can have the same underlying Riemann surface. A dessin is uniform if all black vertices (in the bipartite description) have equal valency $l$, all white vertices have equal valency $m$ and all cells have equal valency $2n$. The associated triangle group ${\Gamma}$ in this case is of the form $(l,m,n)$. If $m\le 2$ then the dessin becomes a map. The main theorem of this paper now states that if ${\mathcal{D}}_{1}$ and ${\mathcal{D}}_{2}$ are two non-arithmetic maps of maximal type, then $R\left({\mathcal{D}}_{1}\right)$ and $R\left({\mathcal{D}}_{2}\right)$ are conformally equivalent if and only if ${\mathcal{D}}_{1}$ and ${\mathcal{D}}_{2}$ are isomorphic maps. The maximal type of a uniform map translates into a condition on $l$ and $n$ for which the associated triangle group ${\Gamma}$ is not contained in a larger triangle group. The proof of the main theorem is based on a fundamental theorem of Margulis on commensurators of Fuchsian groups [*R. J. Zimmer*, Ergodic theory and semisimple groups (1984; Zbl 0571.58015)].

The paper ends with a list of examples where distinct maps and dessins may lie on the same Riemann surface, and also gives a comparison between the automorphism group of a dessin and the one for its underlying Riemann surface.