Summary: The paper reviews the state of the art of fault detection and isolation in automatic processes using analytical redundancy, and presents some new results. It outlines the principles and most important techniques of model-based residual generation using parameter identification and state estimation methods with emphasis upon the latest attempts to achieve robustness with respect to modelling errors.
A solution to the fundamental problem of robust fault detection, providing the maximum achievable robustness by decoupling the effects of faults from each other and from the effects of modelling errors, is given. This approach not only completes the theory but is also of great importance for practical applications.
For the case where the prerequisites for complete decoupling are not given, two approximate solutions - one in the time domain and one in the frequency domain - are presented, and the crossconnections to earlier approaches are evidenced. The resulting observer schemes for robust instrument fault detection, component fault detection, and actuator fault detection are briefly discussed.
Finally, the basic scheme of fault diagnosis using a combination of analytical and knowledge-based redundancy is outlined.