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Use and construction of potential symmetries. (English) Zbl 0792.35008

Summary: Group-theoretic methods based on local symmetries are useful to construct invariant solutions of PDEs and to linearize nonlinear PDEs by invertible mappings. Local symmetries include point symmetries, contact symmetries and, more generally, Lie-Bäcklund symmetries. An obvious limitation in their utility for particular PDEs is the non-existence of local symmetries.

A given system of PDEs with a conserved form can be embedded in a related auxiliary system of PDEs. A local symmetry of the auxiliary system can yield a nonlocal symmetry (potential symmetry) of the given system. The existence of potential symmetries leads to the construction of corresponding invariant solutions as well as to the linearization of nonlinear PDEs by non-invertible mappings.

Recent work considers the problem of finding all potential symmetries of given systems of PDEs. Examples include linear wave equations with variable wave speeds as well as nonlinear diffusion, reaction-diffusion, and gas dynamics equations.

MSC:
35A30Geometric theory for PDE, characteristics, transformations
58J70Invariance and symmetry properties
58J72Correspondences and other transformation methods (PDE on manifolds)