Summary: Multiple antennas can greatly increase the data rate and reliability of a wireless communication link in a fading environment, but the practical success of using multiple antennas depends crucially on our ability to design high-rate space-time constellations with low encoding and decoding complexity. It has been shown that full transmitter diversity, where the constellation is a set of unitary matrices whose differences have nonzero determinant, is a desirable property for good performance.
We use the powerful theory of fixed-point-free groups and their representations to design high-rate constellations with full-diversity. Furthermore, we thereby classify all full-diversity constellations that form a group, for all rates and numbers of transmitter antennas. The group structure makes the constellations especially suitable for differential modulation and low-complexity decoding algorithms.
The classification also reveals that the number of different group structures with full-diversity is very limited when the number of transmitter antennas is large and odd. We, therefore, also consider extensions of the constellation designs to nongroups. We conclude by showing that many of our designed constellations perform excellently on both simulated and real wireless channels.