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Applications of the classical umbral calculus. (English) Zbl 1092.05005
In the nineteenth century, Blissard developed a notation for manipulating sums involving binomial coefficients by expanding polynomials and then replacing exponents with subscripts. Blissard’s notation has been known as the umbral calculus. The goal of the paper is to show, by numerous examples, how the umbral calculus can be used to prove interesting formulas not as easily proved by other methods. The applications are in three general areas: bilinear generating functions, identities for Bernoulli numbers and congruences for sequences such as Euler and Bell numbers.
MSC:
05A40Umbral calculus
05A19Combinatorial identities, bijective combinatorics
05A10Combinatorial functions
11B65Binomial coefficients, etc.
11B68Bernoulli and Euler numbers and polynomials
11B73Bell and Stirling numbers