Summary: Within two-dimensional cutting and packing problems with irregular shaped objects, the concept of
-functions has been proven to be very helpful for several solution approaches. In order to construct such
-functions a previous work [Yu. G. Stoyan
et al., Appl. Math. 29, No. 2, 199–218 (2002; Zbl 1053.90009
)], in which so-called primary objects are considered, is continued. Now
-functions are constructed for pairs of objects which can be represented as a finite combination (union, intersection, complement) of primary objects which allows the handling of arbitrary shaped objects by appropriate approximations of sufficient accuracy.