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Hyperbolicity and invariant manifolds for planar nonautonomous systems on finite time intervals. (English) Zbl 1147.37314
Summary: The method of invariant manifolds was originally developed for hyperbolic rest points of autonomous equations. It was then extended from fixed points to arbitrary solutions and from autonomous equations to nonautonomous dynamical systems by either the Lyapunov-Perron approach or Hadamard’s graph transformation. Ee go one step further and study meaningful notions of hyperbolicity and stable and unstable manifolds for equations which are defined or known only for a finite time, together with matching notions of attraction and repulsion. As a consequence, hyperbolicity and invariant manifolds will describe the dynamics on the finite time interval. We prove an analog of the Theorem of Linearized Asymptotic Stability on finite time intervals, generalize the Okubo-Weiss criterion from fluid dynamics and prove a theorem on the location of periodic orbits. Several examples are treated, including a double gyre flow and symmetric vortex merger.
MSC:
37D10Invariant manifold theory
37C60Nonautonomous smooth dynamical systems
37D05Hyperbolic orbits and sets
34C45Invariant manifolds (ODE)
34D20Stability of ODE