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On linear and nonlinear Rossby waves in an ocean. (English) Zbl 1233.35165
Summary: This paper deals with recent developments of linear and nonlinear Rossby waves in an ocean. Included are also linear Poincaré, Rossby, and Kelvin waves in an ocean. The dispersion diagrams for Poincaré, Kelvin and Rossby waves are presented. Special attention is given to the nonlinear Rossby waves on a β -plane ocean. Based on the perturbation analysis, it is shown that the nonlinear evolution equation for the wave amplitude satisfies a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The solution of this equation represents solitary waves in a dispersive medium. In other words, the envelope of the amplitude of the waves has a soliton structure and these envelope solitons propagate with the group velocity of the Rossby waves. Finally, a nonlinear analytical model is presented for long Rossby waves in a meridional channel with weak shear. A new nonlinear wave equation for the amplitude of large Rossby waves is derived in a region where fluid flows over the recirculation core. It is shown that the governing amplitude equations for the inner and outer zones are both KdV type, where weak nonlinearity is balanced by weak dispersion. In the inner zone, the nonlinear amplitude equation has a new term proportional to the 3/2 power of the difference between the wave amplitude and the critical amplitude, and this term occurs to account for a nonlinearity due to the flow over the vortex core. The solution of the amplitude equations with the linear shear flow represents the solitary waves. The present study deals with the lowest mode (n=1) analysis. An extension of the higher modes (n2) of this work will be made in a subsequent paper.
35Q35PDEs in connection with fluid mechanics
35Q53KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations
76B65Rossby waves
76U05Rotating fluids
86A05Hydrology, hydrography, oceanography