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**Mathematical logic in Poland 1900–1939: People, circles, institutions, ideas.**
*(English)*
Zbl 0843.03001

The author presents a comprehensive and very readable description of Poland’s emergence to one of the leading nations in mathematical logic. He considers biographical, sociological and institutional aspects in combination with the history of ideas, giving a lot of impressing and astonishing facts about the history of Polish logic between 1895 and World War II.

The first center of logical research was Lvov University where K. Twardowski was appointed to the chair of philosophy in 1895. He gathered a group of young people interested in logic, among them J. Łukasiewicz, K. Ajdukiewicz, T. Czeżowski, T. Kotarbiński, and Z. Zawirski. The second center was Cracow with St. Zaremba as “the pioneer of modern logical interests” (p. 367). After World War I, Warsaw became the main logical center, and it grew into “certainly the most ‘logically’ populated place in the world” (p. 375). Two chairs of mathematical logic were established to which Łukasiewicz and St. Leśniewski were appointed.

The excellent institutional integration of mathematical logic in academic education and the successful teaching of its advocates were reasons for its quick development, but also the fruitful collaboration of logicians and mathematicians. Mathematical logic and foundational studies were part of the “Janiszewski program”, the project to establish a Polish Mathematical School.

The author summarizes the disastrous effects of World War II for Polish logicians: “The Lindenbaums, Pepis, Presburger, Salmucha, Schmierer and Wajsberg were killed by the Germans, Hetper and Herzberg perished in the Soviet Union, and Chwistek died in 1944 in Moscow. Leśniewski died just before the war, Smolka in 1947, and Zawirski in 1948. Bocheński, Hiż, Jordan, Lejewski, Łukasiewicz, Mehlberg, Poznański, Sobociński and Tarski left Poland in 1939-1948. The war also stopped normal education. Several completed writings were destroyed or lost” (p. 381).

In the second part, the author considers ideas and results with special attention to the relation between logic, philosophy and mathematics. He finds a great variety of positions due to the fact that the Warsaw Logical School was not bound to any philosophical ideology. Typical examples were Łukasiewicz and Tarski, “both were ready to investigate any logical problem independently of whether it originated in logicism, intuitionism, or formalism” (p. 385).

The paper ends with a list of the main results of Polish logic in propositional calculus, predicate logic, non-classical logics, metalogic, metamathematics, foundations, and the history of.

The first center of logical research was Lvov University where K. Twardowski was appointed to the chair of philosophy in 1895. He gathered a group of young people interested in logic, among them J. Łukasiewicz, K. Ajdukiewicz, T. Czeżowski, T. Kotarbiński, and Z. Zawirski. The second center was Cracow with St. Zaremba as “the pioneer of modern logical interests” (p. 367). After World War I, Warsaw became the main logical center, and it grew into “certainly the most ‘logically’ populated place in the world” (p. 375). Two chairs of mathematical logic were established to which Łukasiewicz and St. Leśniewski were appointed.

The excellent institutional integration of mathematical logic in academic education and the successful teaching of its advocates were reasons for its quick development, but also the fruitful collaboration of logicians and mathematicians. Mathematical logic and foundational studies were part of the “Janiszewski program”, the project to establish a Polish Mathematical School.

The author summarizes the disastrous effects of World War II for Polish logicians: “The Lindenbaums, Pepis, Presburger, Salmucha, Schmierer and Wajsberg were killed by the Germans, Hetper and Herzberg perished in the Soviet Union, and Chwistek died in 1944 in Moscow. Leśniewski died just before the war, Smolka in 1947, and Zawirski in 1948. Bocheński, Hiż, Jordan, Lejewski, Łukasiewicz, Mehlberg, Poznański, Sobociński and Tarski left Poland in 1939-1948. The war also stopped normal education. Several completed writings were destroyed or lost” (p. 381).

In the second part, the author considers ideas and results with special attention to the relation between logic, philosophy and mathematics. He finds a great variety of positions due to the fact that the Warsaw Logical School was not bound to any philosophical ideology. Typical examples were Łukasiewicz and Tarski, “both were ready to investigate any logical problem independently of whether it originated in logicism, intuitionism, or formalism” (p. 385).

The paper ends with a list of the main results of Polish logic in propositional calculus, predicate logic, non-classical logics, metalogic, metamathematics, foundations, and the history of.

Reviewer: V.Peckhaus (Erlangen)

### MSC:

03-03 | History of mathematical logic and foundations |

01A60 | History of mathematics in the 20th century |