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**The independent choice logic for modelling multiple agents under uncertainty.**
*(English)*
Zbl 0902.03017

Summary: Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, including nature) and a logic program that gives the consequence of choices. This representation can be used as a specification for agents that act in a world, make observations of that world and have memory, as well as a modelling tool for dynamic environments with uncertainty. The rules specify the consequences of an action, what can be sensed and the utility of outcomes. This paper presents a possible-worlds semantics for ICL, and shows how to embed influence diagrams, structured Markov decision processes, and both the strategic (normal) form and extensive (game-tree) form of games within the ICL. It is argued that the ICL provides a natural and concise representation for multi-agent decision-making under uncertainty that allows for the representation of structured probability tables, the dynamic construction of networks (through the use of logical variables) and a way to handle uncertainty and decisions in a logical representation.

### MSC:

03B80 | Other applications of logic |

91A05 | 2-person games |

91A35 | Decision theory for games |

68T27 | Logic in artificial intelligence |

68N17 | Logic programming |

### Keywords:

multi-agent decision-making under uncertainty; independent choice logic; logic program; consequence of choices; modelling tool for dynamic environments with uncertainty; consequences of an action; possible-worlds semantics; influence diagrams; structured Markov decision processes; games### Software:

GOLOG
Full Text:
DOI

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