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**A method for finding structured sparse solutions to nonnegative least squares problems with applications.**
*(English)*
Zbl 1282.90239

Summary: Unmixing problems in many areas such as hyperspectral imaging and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) often require finding sparse nonnegative linear combinations of dictionary elements that match observed data. We show how aspects of these problems, such as misalignment of DOAS references and uncertainty in hyperspectral endmembers, can be modeled by expanding the dictionary with grouped elements and imposing a structured sparsity assumption that the combinations within each group should be sparse or even 1-sparse. If the dictionary is highly coherent, it is difficult to obtain good solutions using convex or greedy methods, such as nonnegative least squares (NNLS) or orthogonal matching pursuit. We use penalties related to the Hoyer measure, which is the ratio of the \(l_1\) and \(l_2\) norms, as sparsity penalties to be added to the objective in NNLS-type models. For solving the resulting nonconvex models, we propose a scaled gradient projection algorithm that requires solving a sequence of strongly convex quadratic programs. We discuss its close connections to convex splitting methods and difference of convex programming. We also present promising numerical results for DOAS analysis and hyperspectral unmixing problems.

### MSC:

90C55 | Methods of successive quadratic programming type |

90C90 | Applications of mathematical programming |

65K10 | Numerical optimization and variational techniques |

49N45 | Inverse problems in optimal control |