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**Lewis Carroll’s ciphers: The literary connections.**
*(English)*
Zbl 1079.94012

The five substitution cipher systems discussed in this paper were developed in the 19th century by Charles L. Dodgson, an Oxford lecturer who used the pseudonym Lewis Caroll. According to the author, the creation of the Caroll systems was intertwined with Dodgson’s word game inventions, acrostics and anagrams. Some of the systems are simplified forms of the Vigenère cipher, another, a matrix cipher, is claimed by the author to be the first cipher making use of a mathematical group; the remaining systems are based on Beaufort’s (Sestri’s) cipher. Each system is described using small concrete examples. Regardig the security of the systems, the author mentions that, in the 19th century, only few people knew about Kasiski’s method.

Reviewer: Ralph-Hardo Schulz (Berlin)

### Biographic References:

Carroll, Lewis
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\textit{F. F. Abeles}, Adv. Appl. Math. 34, No. 4, 697--708 (2005; Zbl 1079.94012)

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### References:

[1] | Abeles, F., The Memoria Technica Cipher, Cryptologia, xxvii, 217-229 (2003) |

[2] | Abeles, F., The Mathematical Pamphlets of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and Related Pieces (1994), LCSNA-University Press of Virginia: LCSNA-University Press of Virginia New York-Charlottesville · Zbl 0818.01004 |

[3] | Abeles, F.; Lipson, S. H., Some Victorian periodic polyalphabetic ciphers, (Deavours, C. A.; etal., Selections from Cryptologia (1998), Artech House: Artech House Norwood, MA), 309-315 |

[4] | F. Beaufort, Cryptography. A System of Secret Writing by the late Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, K.C.B., adapted for telegrams and postcards (Card), London, Edward Sanford, n.d; F. Beaufort, Cryptography. A System of Secret Writing by the late Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, K.C.B., adapted for telegrams and postcards (Card), London, Edward Sanford, n.d |

[5] | C.L. Dodgson, Packet 60, items 1, 2, 3. The Mathematical Manuscripts of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, Morris L. Parrish Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library, Princeton, NJ; C.L. Dodgson, Packet 60, items 1, 2, 3. The Mathematical Manuscripts of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, Morris L. Parrish Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library, Princeton, NJ |

[6] | (Fisher, J., The Magic of Lewis Carroll (1973), Simon and Schuster: Simon and Schuster New York) |

[7] | Kahn, D., The Codebreakers (1967), Macmillan: Macmillan New York |

[8] | Kasiski, F. W., Die Geheimschriften und die Dechiffrir-kunst (1863), Mittler & Sohn: Mittler & Sohn Berlin |

[9] | Kerckhoffs, A., La Cryptographie Militaire (1883), L. Baudoin & Cie: L. Baudoin & Cie Paris |

[10] | Lipson, S. H.; Abeles, F., The Matrix Cipher of C.L. Dodgson, Cryptologia, xiv, 28-36 (1990) |

[11] | Lipson, S. H.; Abeles, F., The Key-Vowel Cipher of Charles L. Dodgson, (Deavours, C. A.; etal., Selections from Cryptologia (1998), Artech House: Artech House Norwood, MA), 323-329 |

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