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**Design sensitivity and constraint approximation methods for optimization in non-linear analysis.**
*(English)*
Zbl 0899.73330

Summary: For the finite element nonlinear analysis of engineering problems combined with an optimization method, we propose two techniques – a semi-analytical sensitivity method and bi-point constraint approximation. To validate the proposed methods, a raft foundation on a soil medium has been analyzed and the results have been compared. From the numerical results, it has been found that, for nonlinear analysis, the semi-analytical sensitivity method is more efficient than the finite difference method, and the bi-point approximation gives results which compare favourably with the finite element results.

### Keywords:

finite element method; semi-analytical sensitivity method; bi-point constraint approximation; finite difference method
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\textit{S. Valliappan} et al., Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 13, No. 12, 999--1008 (1997; Zbl 0899.73330)

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