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A numerical study of three-dimensional liquid sloshing in tanks. (English) Zbl 1317.76061

Summary: A numerical model NEWTANK (Numerical Wave TANK) has been developed to study three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear liquid sloshing with broken free surfaces. The numerical model solves the spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equations, which are constructed on a non-inertial reference frame having arbitrary six degree-of-freedom (DOF) of motions, for two-phase flows. The large-eddy-simulation (LES) approach is adopted to model the turbulence effect by using the Smagorinsky sub-grid scale (SGS) closure model. The two-step projection method is employed in the numerical solutions, aided by the Bi-CGSTAB technique to solve the pressure Poisson equation for the filtered pressure field. The second-order accurate volume-of-fluid (VOF) method is used to track the distorted and broken free surface. Laboratory experiments are conducted for both 2-D and 3-D nonlinear liquid sloshing in a rectangular tank. A linear analytical solution of 3-D liquid sloshing under the coupled surge and sway excitation is also developed in this study. The numerical model is first validated against the available analytical solution and experimental data for 2-D liquid sloshing of both inviscid and viscous fluids. The validation is further extended to 3-D liquid sloshing. The numerical results match with the analytical solution when the excitation amplitude is small. When the excitation amplitude is large where sloshing becomes highly nonlinear, large discrepancies are developed between the numerical results and the analytical solutions, the former of which, however, agree well with the experimental data. Finally, as a demonstration, a violent liquid sloshing with broken free surfaces under six DOF excitations is simulated and discussed.

MSC:

76M25 Other numerical methods (fluid mechanics) (MSC2010)
76F65 Direct numerical and large eddy simulation of turbulence
76T10 Liquid-gas two-phase flows, bubbly flows
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