A comparison of factor analysis programs in SPSS BMDP, and SAS. (English) Zbl 0534.62039

Summary: Factor analysis programs in SAS, BMDP, and SPSS are discussed and compared in terms of documentation, methods and options available, internal logic, computational accuracy, and results provided. Some problems with respect to logic and output are described. Based on these comparisons, recommendations are offered which include a clear overall preference for SAS, and advice against general use of SPSS for factor analysis.


62H25 Factor analysis and principal components; correspondence analysis
62-04 Software, source code, etc. for problems pertaining to statistics
65C99 Probabilistic methods, stochastic differential equations


Full Text: DOI


[1] Armstrong, J. S. Derivation of theory by means of factor analysis or Tom Swift and his electric factor analysis machine.The American Statistician, 1967, 17–21.
[2] Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures.Psychological Bulletin, 1980,88, 588–606.
[3] Dixon, W. J.BMDP Statistical Software–1981. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1981. · Zbl 0549.62004
[4] Guttman, L. Some necessary conditions for common factor analysis.Psychometrika, 1954,19, 149–161. · Zbl 0058.13004
[5] Harman, H. H.Modern factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. · Zbl 0161.39805
[6] Harris, C. W. Some Rao-Guttman relationships.Psychometrika, 1962,27, 247–263. · Zbl 0208.23402
[7] Harris, C. W., & Kaiser, H. F. Oblique factor analytic solutions by orthogonal transformations.Psychometrika, 1964,29, 347–362.
[8] Helwig, J. T., & Council, K. A.SAS User’s Guide: 1979 edition. Raleigh, N.C.: SAS Institute, Inc., 1979.
[9] Hendrickson, A. E., & White, P. O. Promax: A quick method for rotation to oblique simple structure.British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 1964,17, 65–70.
[10] Hornik, J. Quantitative analysis of visual perception of printed advertisements.Journal of Advertising Research, 1980,20, 41–48.
[11] Hull, C. H., & Nie, N. H.SPSS Update 7–9. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
[12] Jennrich, R. I., & Sampson, P. F. Rotation for simple loadings.Psychometrika, 1966,31, 313–323.
[13] Kaiser, H. F. A second generation Little Jiffy.Psychometrika, 1970,35, 401–415. · Zbl 0212.52101
[14] McDonald, R. P., & Burr, E. J. A comparison of four methods of constructing factor scores.Psychometrika, 1967,32, 381–401. · Zbl 0183.24602
[15] Montanelli, R. G., & Humphreys, L. Latent roots of random data correlation matrices with squared multiple correlations on the diagonal: A Monte Carlo study.Psychometrika, 1976,41, 341–348. · Zbl 0336.62040
[16] Mulaik, S. A.The foundations of factor analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. · Zbl 1182.62133
[17] Nie, N. H., Hull, C. H., Jenkins, J. G., Steinbrenner, K., & Bent, D. H.SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.
[18] SAS Institute Inc.SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, 1982 Edition, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1982.
[19] Tucker, L. R Relations of factor score estimates to their use.Psychometrika, 1971,36, 427–436. · Zbl 0228.62058
[20] Tucker, L. R, Koopman, R. F., & Linn, R. L. Evaluation of factor analytic research procedures by means of simulated correlation matrices.Psychometrika, 1969,34, 421–459.
[21] Tucker, L. R, & Lewis, C. A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis.Psychometrika, 1973,38, 1–10. · Zbl 0249.62095
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.