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Public-key cryptosystems from lattice reduction problems. (English) Zbl 0889.94011
Kaliski, Burton S. jun. (ed.), Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO ’97. 17th annual international cryptology conference. Santa Barbara, CA, USA. August 17–21, 1997. Proceedings. Berlin: Springer. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1294, 112-131 (1997).
A lattice \(L(B)\) is defined as the integral combinations of basis vectors of the basis \(B= \{b_1,\ldots, b_n\}\). There are two difficult problems related to lattices. The first one is the CVP (Closest Vector Problem), i.e. given a lattice \(L(B)\) with basis \(B\) and an arbitrary vector \(v\), find a vector in the lattice \(L(B)\) that is closest to \(v\) in some norm. The second one is the SBP (Smallest Basis Problem), i.e. find a basis \(B'\) for a lattice \(L(B)\) such that the orthogonality defect (i.e. \(\prod|b_i|/|\det(B)|\)) is the smallest.
The first problem is known to be NP-hard for any \(l_p\)-norm. For the second no known polynomial time solution is known.
The proposed cryptosystem makes use of two bases for the same lattice \(L\).
The basis \(B\) has a small orthogonality defect (i.e. the orthogonality defect of the inverse matrix \(B^{-1}\)). The basis \(B'\) has a large one. The matrix \(B'\) is made public.
The observation now is that if \(v\) is a random vector and \(e\) is a random noise vector satisfying some properties then if \(B'v+e\) is known, \(v\) can be reconstructed in a simple way if \(B\) is known, but it is difficult to reconstruct \(v\) if \(B\) is not known. The proposed cryptosystem makes use of this observation by embedding a message in a more or less random vector \(v\) and then calculating \(B'v+e\) for some randomly chosen noise vector \(e\) satisfying some extra conditions. An attacker has to solve either the CVP or the SBP to obtain \(v\) and hence to find the message.
For the entire collection see [Zbl 0870.00047].

MSC:
94A60 Cryptography
68W30 Symbolic computation and algebraic computation
11Y16 Number-theoretic algorithms; complexity
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