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Interpolation theorems, lower bounds for proof systems, and independence results for bounded arithmetic. (English) Zbl 0891.03029
This article is a supplement, so to say, to the author’s monograph: Bounded arithmetic, propositional logic, and complexity theory (1995; Zbl 0835.03025), and the author provides the following abstract:
“A proof of the (propositional) Craig interpolation theorem for cut-free sequent calculus yields that a sequent with a cut-free proof (or with a proof with cut-formulas of restricted form; in particular, with only analytic cuts) with \(k\) inferences has an interpolant whose circuit-size is at most \(k\). We give a new proof of the interpolation theorem based on a communication complexity approach which allows a similar estimate for a larger class of proofs. We derive from it several corollaries:
(1) Feasible interpolation theorems for the following proof systems:
(a) resolution,
(b) a subsystem of LK corresponding to the bounded arithmetic theory \(S^2_2 (\alpha)\),
(c) linear equational calculus,
(d) cutting planes.
(2) New proofs of the exponential lower bounds (for new formulas):
(a) for resolution,
(b) for the cutting planes proof system with coefficients written in unary.
(3) An alternative proof of the independence result of A. A. Razborov [Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Mat. 59, No. 1, 201-224 (1995; Zbl 0838.03045)] concerning the provability of circuit-size lower bounds in the bounded arithmetic theory \(S^2_2(\alpha)\).
In the other direction we show that a depth 2 subsystem of LK does not admit feasible monotone interpolation theorem (the so called Lyndon theorem), and that a feasible monotone interpolation theorem for the depth 1 subsystem of LK would yield new exponential lower bounds for resolution proofs of the weak pigeonhole principle.”
What is not said in the above abstract is that this paper also serves as a guide to the literature. It carries 46 references, and the author comments on them at pertinent points throughout the text.

MSC:
03F20 Complexity of proofs
03F30 First-order arithmetic and fragments
03B05 Classical propositional logic
03D15 Complexity of computation (including implicit computational complexity)
68Q15 Complexity classes (hierarchies, relations among complexity classes, etc.)
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