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**Boosting the margin: a new explanation for the effectiveness of voting methods.**
*(English)*
Zbl 0929.62069

Summary: One of the surprising recurring phenomena observed in experiments with boosting is that the test error of the generated classifier usually does not increase as its size becomes very large, and often is observed to decrease even after the training error reaches zero. We show that this phenomenon is related to the distribution of margins of the training examples with respect to the generated voting classification rule, where the margin of an example is simply the difference between the number of correct votes and the maximum number of votes received by any incorrect label.

We show that techniques used in the analysis of Vapnik’s support vector classifiers and of neural networks with small weights can be applied to voting methods to relate the margin distribution to the test error. We also show theoretically and experimentally that boosting is especially effective at increasing the margins of the training examples. Finally, we compare our explanation to those based on the bias-variance decomposition.

We show that techniques used in the analysis of Vapnik’s support vector classifiers and of neural networks with small weights can be applied to voting methods to relate the margin distribution to the test error. We also show theoretically and experimentally that boosting is especially effective at increasing the margins of the training examples. Finally, we compare our explanation to those based on the bias-variance decomposition.

### MSC:

62H30 | Classification and discrimination; cluster analysis (statistical aspects) |

65C60 | Computational problems in statistics (MSC2010) |

68T05 | Learning and adaptive systems in artificial intelligence |

### Keywords:

ensemble methods; decision trees; bagging; error-correcting; output; coding; Markov chain Monte Carlo; boosting; neural networks
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\textit{R. E. Schapire} et al., Ann. Stat. 26, No. 5, 1651--1686 (1998; Zbl 0929.62069)

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[42] | FLORHAM PARK, NEW JERSEY 07932-0971 FLORHAM PARK, NEW JERSEY 07932-0971 E-MAIL: schapire@research.att.com E-MAIL: yoav@research.att.com RSISE, AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UNSW CANBERRA, ACT 0200 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE ACADEMY AUSTRALIA CANBERRA ACT 2600 E-MAIL: Peter.Bartlett@anu.edu.au AUSTRALIA E-MAIL: w-lee@ee.adfa.oz.au |

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