Normal inverse Gaussian distributions and stochastic volatility modelling.

*(English)*Zbl 0934.62109Summary: The normal inverse Gaussian distribution is defined as a variance-mean mixture of a normal distribution with the inverse Gaussian as the mixing distribution. The distribution determines a homogeneous Lévy process, and this process is representable through subordination of Brownian motion by the inverse Gaussian process. The canonical, Lévy type, decomposition of the process is determined. As a preparation for developments in the latter part of the paper the connection of the normal inverse Gaussian distribution to the classes of generalized hyperbolic and inverse Gaussian distributions is briefly reviewed. Then a discussion is begun of the potential of the normal inverse Gaussian distribution and Lévy process for modelling and analysing statistical data, with particular reference to extensive sets of observations from turbulence and from finance. These areas of application imply a need for extending the inverse Gaussian Lévy process so as to accommodate certain, frequently observed, temporal dependence structures. Some extensions, of the stochastic volatility type, are constructed via an observation-driven approach to state space modelling. At the end of the paper generalizations to multivariate settings are indicated.

##### MSC:

62P05 | Applications of statistics to actuarial sciences and financial mathematics |

60J99 | Markov processes |

91G70 | Statistical methods; risk measures |