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Measurements of edge-uncolorability. (English) Zbl 1041.05031
Summary: Cubic bridgeless graphs with chromatic index four are called uncolorable. We introduce parameters measuring the uncolorability of those graphs and relate them to each other. For \(k=2,3\), let \(c_k\) be the maximum size of a \(k\)-colorable subgraph of a cubic graph \(G=(V,E)\). We consider \(r_3=|E|-c_3\) and \(r_2=\frac{2}{3}|E|-c_2\). We show that on one side \(r_3\) and \(r_2\) bound each other, but on the other side that the difference between them can be arbitrarily large. We also compare them to the oddness \(\omega\) of \(G\), the smallest possible number of odd circuits in a 2-factor of \(G\). We construct cyclically 5-edge connected cubic graphs where \(r_3\) and \(\omega\) are arbitrarily far apart, and show that for each \(1 \leqslant c < 2\) there is a cubic graph such that \(\omega \geqslant cr_3\). For \(k=2,3\), let \(\zeta_k\) denote the largest fraction of edges that can be \(k\)-colored. We give best possible bounds for these parameters, and relate them to each other.

MSC:
05C15 Coloring of graphs and hypergraphs
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