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**Computation of two-dimensional flows past ram-air parachutes.**
*(English)*
Zbl 1043.76036

From the summary: We present computational results for flow past a two-dimensional model of a ram-air parachute with leading edge cut. Both laminar \((Re=10^4)\) and turbulent \((Re=10^6)\) flows are computed. A stabilized finite element method is utilized to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables formulation. The Baldwin-Lomax model is employed for turbulence closure. Turbulent flow computations past a Clarck-Y airfoil without a leading edge cut, for \(\alpha=7.5^\circ\), result in an attached flow. The leading edge cut causes the flow to become unsteady and leads to a significant loss in lift and to an increase in drag. The flow inside the parafoil cell remains almost stagnant, resulting in a high value of pressure, which is responsible for giving the parafoil its shape. The value of the lift-to-drag ratio obtained with the present computations is in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

### MSC:

76M10 | Finite element methods applied to problems in fluid mechanics |

76D05 | Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids |

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\textit{S. Mittal} et al., Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 35, No. 6, 643--667 (2001; Zbl 1043.76036)

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