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The Lie algebra structure of nonlinear evolution equations admitting infinite-dimensional abelian symmetry groups. (English) Zbl 1074.58501
Summary: Hereditary operators in Lie algebras are investigated. These are operators which are characterized by a special algebraic equation and their main property is that they generate abelian subalgebras of the given Lie algebra. These abelian subalgebras are infinite dimensional if the hereditary operator is not cyclic. As a consequence hereditary operators generate on a systematic level nonlinear dynamical systems which possess infinite dimensional abelian groups of symmetry transformations. We show that hereditary operators can be understood as special Lie algebra deformations with a linear interpolation property. In order to construct new hereditary operators out of given ones we study the permanence properties of these operators; this study of permanence properties leads in a natural way to a notion of compatibility. For local hereditary operators it is shown that eigenvector decompositions are time invariant (such an eigenvector decomposition is known to characterize pure multisoliton solutions). Apart from the well-known equations (KdV, sine-Gordon, etc.), we give – as examples – many new nonlinear equations with infinite dimensional groups of symmetry transformations.

MSC:
58H15 Deformations of general structures on manifolds
17B80 Applications of Lie algebras and superalgebras to integrable systems
35A30 Geometric theory, characteristics, transformations in context of PDEs
37K30 Relations of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamical systems with infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and other algebraic structures
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