Automatic image authentication and recovery using fractal code embedding and image inpainting. (English) Zbl 1129.68494

Summary: We propose a novel scheme of automatic image authentication and recovery, in which the altered region of the image can be detected and recovered in a fully automated fashion. To achieve high-quality image recovery, we choose the Region Of Importance (ROI) in the image and perform fractal encoding for the blocks of ROI. And then we insert the fractal codes of ROI and the watermark into the original image to obtain the watermarked image. By watermark extraction, we can determine whether the watermarked image has been tampered or not. If the watermarked image has been tampered, we can automatically localize the altered region, and apply either fractal decoding or image inpainting for image recovery. Finally, experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.


68T10 Pattern recognition, speech recognition
68P25 Data encryption (aspects in computer science)
68U10 Computing methodologies for image processing
Full Text: DOI


[1] Barreto, P.S.L.M.; Kim, H.Y.; Rijmen, V., Toward secure public-key blockwise fragile authentication watermarking, IEEE proc. vision image signal process., 149, 2, 57-62, (2002)
[2] Fridrich, J.; Goljan, M.; Baldoza, A.C., New fragile authentication watermark for images, (), 446-449
[3] Lu, H.; Shen, R.; Chung, F.L., Fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication, Electron. lett., 39, 12, 898-900, (2003)
[4] P.W. Wong, A public key watermark for image verification and authentication, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1, Chicago, USA, October 1998, pp. 445-459.
[5] P.W. Wong, A watermark for image integrity and ownership verification, Proceedings of the IS&T PIC Conference (Portland OR), May 1998 (also available as Hewlett-Packard Labs. Technical Report HPL-97-72, May 1997).
[6] Yeung, M.M.; Mintzer, F., An invisible watermarking technique for image verification, (), 680-683
[7] Wong, P.W.; Memon, N., Secret and public key image watermarking schemes for image authentication and ownership verification, IEEE trans. image process., 10, 10, 1593-1601, (2001) · Zbl 1039.68802
[8] Celik, M.U.; Sharma, G.; Saber, E.; Tekalp, A.M., Hierarchical watermarking for secure image authentication with localization, IEEE trans. image process., 11, 6, 585-595, (2002)
[9] Wu, J.; Zhu, B.B.; Li, S.; Lin, F., A secure image authentication algorithm with pixel-level tamper localization, (), 1573-1576
[10] Lin, P.L.; Hsieh, C.; Huang, P., A hierarchical digital watermarking method for image tamper detection and recovery, Pattern recognition, 38, 2519-2529, (2005)
[11] Fridrich, J.; Goljan, M., Images with self-correcting capabilities, (), 792-796
[12] Lin, P.L.; Huang, P.W.; Peng, A.W., A fragile watermarking for image authentication with localization and recovery, (), 146-153
[13] Ashikhmin, M., Synthesizing natural textures, (), 217-226
[14] Efros, A.; Freeman, W.T., Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer, (), 341-346
[15] Criminisi, A.; Perez, P.; Toyama, K., Region filling and object removal by exemplar-based image inpainting, IEEE trans. image process., 13, 9, 1200-1212, (2004)
[16] Barnsley, M.F., Fractal everywhere, (1988), Academic Press, Inc. San Diego
[17] Jacquin, A.E., Fractal image coding: a review, Proc. IEEE, 81, 10, 1451-1465, (1993)
[18] Jacquin, A.E., Image coding based on a fractal theory of iterated contractive image transformations, IEEE trans. image process., 1, 1, 18-30, (1992)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.