×

zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Steganalysis and payload estimation of embedding in pixel differences using neural networks. (English) Zbl 1187.68413
Summary: A steganalysis technique is proposed for pixel-value differencing method. This steganographic method, which is immune against conventional attacks, performs the embedding in the difference of the values of pixel pairs. Therefore, the histogram of the differences of an embedded image is different as compared with a cover image. A number of characteristics are identified in the difference histogram that show meaningful alterations when an image is embedded. Five distinct multilayer perceptrons neural networks are trained to detect different levels of embedding. Every image is fed to all networks and a voting system categorizes the image as stego or cover. The implementation results indicate 88.6% success in correct categorization of the test images that contained more than 20% embedding. Furthermore, using a neural network an estimator is presented which gives an estimate of the amount of the MPVD embedding in an image. Implementation of the estimator showed an average accuracy of 88.3% in the estimation of the amount of embedding.

MSC:
68T05 Learning and adaptive systems in artificial intelligence
68T10 Pattern recognition, speech recognition
68P25 Data encryption (aspects in computer science)
PDF BibTeX XML Cite
Full Text: DOI
References:
[1] Dumitrescu, S.; Wu, X.; Wang, Z., Detection of LSB steganography via sample pair analysis, IEEE transactions on signal processing, 51, 7, 1995-2007, (2003), (July)
[2] Hopper, N., Toward a theory of steganography, (2004), Carnegie Mellon University, Ph.D. Thesis, School of Computer Science, July
[3] Provos, N.; Honeyman, P., Hide and seek: an introduction to steganography, IEEE security & privacy, 1, 32-44, (2003)
[4] B. Pitzmann, Information hiding terminology, in: Information Hiding, vol. 1174, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1996, pp. 347-350.
[5] M. Kharrazi, H.T. Sencar and N. Memon, Image steganography: concepts and practice, in: Lecture Notes Series, Institute for Mathematical Sciences, National University of Singapore, 2004.
[6] A. Westfeld, F5 a steganographic algorithm: high capacity despite better steganalysis, in: Proceedings of 4th International Information Hiding Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2137, 2001, pp. 289-302. · Zbl 1010.68745
[7] Swanson, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Tewfik, A., Multimedia data embedding and watermarking technologies, Proceedings of the IEEE, 86, 6, 1064-1087, (1998)
[8] Cox, I.; Kilian, J.; Leighton, T.; Shamoon, T., Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia, IEEE transactions on image processing, 6, 12, 1673-1687, (1997)
[9] N. Provos, Defending against statistical steganalysis, in: Proceedings of the 10th Usenix Security Symposium, 2001, pp. 323-335
[10] Westfeld, A.; Pfitzman, A., Attacks on steganographic systems, (), 61-76
[11] Fridrich, J.; Goljan, M.; Du, R., Reliable detection of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images, Proceedings of the ACM: special session on multimedia security and watermarking, 27-30, (2001)
[12] Wu, D.C.; Tsai, W.H., A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing, Pattern recognition letters, 24, 1613-1626, (2003) · Zbl 1048.68040
[13] Wu, H.C.; Wu, N.I.; Tsai, C.S.; Hwang, M.S., Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods, IEE Proceedings on vision, image and signal processing, 152, 5, 611-615, (2005)
[14] Sabeti, V.; Samavi, S.; Mahdavi, M.; Shirani, S., Steganalysis of pixel-value differencing steganographic method, IEEE Pacific rim conference on communications, computers and signal processing, 292-295, (2007)
[15] Zhang, X.; Wang, S., Vulnerability of pixel-value differencing steganography to histogram analysis and modification for enhanced security, Pattern recognition letters, 3, 331-339, (2004)
[16] Lu, T.C.; Chang, C.C., Lossless nibbled data embedding scheme based on difference expansion, Image and vision computing, 26, 5, 632-638, (2008)
[17] Lin, C.C.; Hsueh, N.L., A lossless data hiding scheme based on three-pixel block differences, Pattern recognition, 41, 1415-1425, (2008) · Zbl 1130.68336
[18] Farid, H., Detecting steganographic message in digital images, (2001), Dartmouth College Hanover, NH, (Report TR2001-412)
[19] Fridrich, J.; Pevny, T., Merging Markov and DCT features for multi-class JPEG steganalysis, Proceedings of the SPIE electronic imaging, photonics west, 03-04, (2007)
[20] Liu, Q.; Sung, A.H.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J., Feature mining and pattern classification for steganalysis of LSB matching steganography in grayscale images, Pattern recognition, 41, 56-66, (2008) · Zbl 1122.68543
[21] Zhang, T.; Ping, X., A new approach to reliable detection of LSB steganography in natural images, Signal processing, 83, 2085-2093, (2003) · Zbl 1145.94317
[22] Serratosa, F.; Sanfeliu, A., Signatures vs. histograms: definitions, distances and algorithms, Pattern recognition, 39, 921-934, (2006) · Zbl 1122.68561
[23] Gao, X.; Xiao, B.; Tao, D.; Li, X., Image categorization: graph edit distance+edge direction histogram, Pattern recognition, 41, 10, 3179-3191, (2008) · Zbl 1147.68797
[24] Ker, A.D., Quantitative evaluation of pairs and RS steganalysis, SPIE security, steganography, watermarking multimedia contents proceeding, 5306, 83-97, (2004)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.