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Spatiospectral concentration in the Cartesian plane. (English) Zbl 1226.42017
Summary: We pose and solve the analogue of Slepian’s time-frequency concentration problem in the two-dimensional plane, for applications in the natural sciences. We determine an orthogonal family of strictly bandlimited functions that are optimally concentrated within a closed region of the plane, or, alternatively, of strictly spacelimited functions that are optimally concentrated in the Fourier domain. The Cartesian Slepian functions can be found by solving a Fredholm integral equation whose associated eigenvalues are a measure of the spatiospectral concentration. Both the spatial and spectral regions of concentration can, in principle, have arbitrary geometry. However, for practical applications of signal representation or spectral analysis such as exist in geophysics or astronomy, in physical space irregular shapes, and in spectral space symmetric domains will usually be preferred. When the concentration domains are circularly symmetric in both spaces, the Slepian functions are also eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville operator, leading to special algorithms for this case, as is well known. Much like their one-dimensional and spherical counterparts with which we discuss them in a common framework, a basis of functions that are simultaneously spatially and spectrally localized on arbitrary Cartesian domains will be of great utility in many scientific disciplines, but especially in the geosciences.

42B99 Harmonic analysis in several variables
41A30 Approximation by other special function classes
86-08 Computational methods for problems pertaining to geophysics
47B15 Hermitian and normal operators (spectral measures, functional calculus, etc.)
46E22 Hilbert spaces with reproducing kernels (= (proper) functional Hilbert spaces, including de Branges-Rovnyak and other structured spaces)
34B24 Sturm-Liouville theory
45B05 Fredholm integral equations
33C55 Spherical harmonics
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