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Age-specific copula-AR-GARCH mortality models. (English) Zbl 1314.91143

Summary: In this paper, we propose AR-GARCH (autoregression-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity) models to fit and forecast mortality rates for a given age by two alternative approaches. Specifically, one approach is to fit a time series of mortality rates for some age to an AR(\(n\))-GARCH(1,1) model, and project the mortality rate for that age in the next \(n\)th year; the other is to fit an AR(1)-GARCH(1,1) model, and project the mortality rates recursively for the age in the next consecutive years. Further, we employ the copula method to capture the inter-age mortality dependence. Adopting mortality data of Japan, the UK, and the USA, we demonstrate that it is indispensable to consider the conditional heteroskedasticity in our mortality models which provide better performances in out-of-sample projection and prediction intervals with a higher degree of coverage than the Lee-Carter model. Finally, we numerically illustrate with mortality data of Japan that VaR (Value at Risk) values for longevity risk, regarded as additional reserves for annuity or pension providers, will be overestimated if the conditional heteroskedasticity or/and the inter-age mortality dependence structure are ignored.

MSC:

91B30 Risk theory, insurance (MSC2010)
62P20 Applications of statistics to economics
91B84 Economic time series analysis
91D20 Mathematical geography and demography
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