## Accelerating $$t$$-SNE using tree-based algorithms.(English)Zbl 1319.62134

Summary: The paper investigates the acceleration of $$t$$-SNE-an embedding technique that is commonly used for the visualization of high- dimensional data in scatter plots – using two tree-based algorithms. In particular, the paper develops variants of the Barnes-Hut algorithm and of the dual-tree algorithm that approximate the gradient used for learning $$t$$-SNE embeddings in $$\mathcal{O}(N \log N)$$. Our experiments show that the resulting algorithms substantially accelerate $$t$$-SNE, and that they make it possible to learn embeddings of data sets with millions of objects. Somewhat counterintuitively, the Barnes-Hut variant of $$t$$-SNE appears to outperform the dual-tree variant.

### MSC:

 62H30 Classification and discrimination; cluster analysis (statistical aspects) 62A09 Graphical methods in statistics
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