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Max Planck and the beginnings of the quantum theory. (English) Zbl 0113.00204


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[1] There are three such retrospective accounts: (a) Planck’s Nobel Prize Lecture: Die Entstehung und bisherige Entwicklung der Quantentheorie (Leipzig 1920); English translation in Planck’s: A Survey of Physics (New York n.d.); (b) Naturwissenschaften 31, 153–159 (1943); (c) Wissenschaftliche Selbstbiographie (Leipzig, 1948); English translation in Planck’s Scientific Autobiography (New York, 1949). – All three are reprinted in Max Planck: Physikalische Abhandlungen und Vorträge, Bd. III. Braunschweig 1958. This collection will be referred to throughout as Phys. Abh.
[2] Rosenfeld L.: La première phase de l’évolution de la Théorie des Quanta. Osiris 2, 149–196 (1936). · JFM 62.1646.05
[3] Rosenfeld, L.: Max Planck et la définition statistique de l’entropie, in Max-Planck-Festschrift 1958 (Berlin, 1958), pp. 203–211.
[4] See E. T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (London, 1951), vol. 1, p. 371. · Zbl 0043.24503
[5] Planck, M.: Ref. 1(c) English transl. pp. 34–35.
[6] Stefan, J.: Wien. Ber. 79, 391 (1879).
[7] Boltzmann, L.: Wied. Annalen 22, 291 (1884). See also M. Planck, The Theory of Heat Radiation (Reprinted New York, 1959), Chapter 2. · JFM 16.1065.04
[8] Wien, W.: Wied. Annalen 52, 132 (1894). · JFM 25.1828.02
[9] Wien, W.: Wied. Annalen 58, 662 (1896). · JFM 27.0780.01
[10] Lord Rayleigh: Phil. Mag. 49, 539 (1900). Reprinted in his Scientific Papers (Cambridge, 1903), vol. IV, pp. 483–485.
[11] Planck, M.: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1897), 57; – Phys. Abh. Bd. I. S. 493.
[12] Boltzmann, L.: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1897), 660, 1016.
[13] Planck, M.: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1899), 440; – Phys. Abh. Bd. I, S. 560. Especially S. 575–581. – The theorem in the form quoted in the text appears in Bd. I, S. 724.
[14] Planck, M.: Phys. Abh. Bd. I, S. 597.
[15] Planck, M.: Ann. Phys. 1, 69 (1900); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 614. · JFM 31.0845.01
[16] Lummer, O., & E. Pringsheim: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 1, 215 (1899).
[17] Thiesen, M.: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 2, 37 (1900).
[18] See reference 1 (b). Planck, M.: Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 262.
[19] See Planck, M.: Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 404.
[20] Planck, M.: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 2, 202 (1900); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 687.
[21] Planck, M.: Reference 1(c). English translation p. 40. Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 394.
[22] Lummer, O., & E. Jahnke: Ann. Phys. 3, 288 (1900).
[23] Rubens, H., & F. Kurlbaum: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1900), 929.
[24] Planck, M.: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 2, 237 (1900); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 698.
[25] Planck, M.: Reference 1 (c). English translation p. 32. Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 387.
[26] Planck, M.: Wied. Ann. 30, 562 (1887); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 196.
[27] Planck, M.: Z. phys. Chem. 8, 647 (1891); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 372.
[28] Planck, M.: Treatise on Thermodynamics (Reprint of English translation of Seventh German Edition, New York, 1945) p. vii.
[29] Planck, M.: Reference 1(a). English translation p. 166; – Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 125.
[30] Planck, M.: Ann. Phys. 4, 553 (1901); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 717. · JFM 32.0913.05
[31] Planck, M.: Ann. Phys. 4, 564 (1901); – Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 728. · JFM 32.0908.01
[32] See Millikan, R.A.: The Electron (Chicago 1917).
[33] Perrin, J.: Les Preuves de la Réalité Moléculaire, in La Théorie du Rayonnement et les Quanta, edit. by P. Langevin & M. de Broglie, pp. 153–250 (Paris 1912).
[34] Boltzmann, L.: Wien. Ber. 76, 373 (1877). Reprinted in his Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Bd. II, S. 164 (Leipzig 1909).
[35] See the discussion in R. Dugas, La Théorie Physique au sens de Boltzmann (Neuchâtel, 1959), especially Ch. 6 (Seconde Partie) and Ch. 4 (Troisième Partie).
[36] Rosenfeld, L.: Reference [2],
[37] Ehrenfest, P.: Ann. Phys. 36, 91 (1911). · JFM 42.0911.02
[38] Ehrenfest, P., & H. Kamerlingh Onnes: Proc. Amsterdam Acad. 17, 870 (1914). The two preceding papers are reprinted in P. Ehrenfest, Collected Scientific Papers, ed. by M. J. Klein (Amsterdam, 1959), on pages 185 and 353 respectively.
[39] See Klein, M. J.: Proc. Amsterdam Acad. B 62, 41 (1959).
[40] Lord Rayleigh: Nature 72, 54 (1905).
[41] Lord Rayleigh, Nature 72, 243 (1905). · JFM 36.0973.01
[42] Jeans, J.: Nature 72, 293 (1905). · JFM 36.0981.01
[43] Ehrenfest, P.: Phys. Z. 15, 657 (1914). See also his article in Naturwissenschaften, 11, 543 (1923). Both are reprinted in his Collected Scientific Papers, pages 347 and 463.
[44] See Dugas: Reference 35, Chap. 6–8 (Première Partie) and Chap. 5 (Troisième Partie).
[45] Boltzmann, L.: Vorlesungen über Gastheorie, Bd. II, S. V. (Leipzig 1898).
[46] Planck, M.: Reference 1(a). English translation p. 167. Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 126.
[47] Einstein, A.: Ann. Phys. 17, 132 (1905). · JFM 36.0883.01
[48] Einstein, A.: Philosopher-Scientist, edit. by P. A. Schilpp, p. 45 (New York 1949).
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