×

zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

New developments in forest modeling: Convergence between applied and theoretical approaches. (English) Zbl 0994.91054
Summary: Additionally to simulations, a mathematical analysis of ecological models could give insights into the system behavior. However, mathematical model analysis has only been performed for simple, abstract models, because models based on biological processes are too complex. Linking simple and detailed approaches could help to obtain mathematically tractable models which are based on physiological and ecological processes. This can be achieved either by extending simpler models with components of complex ones, or by a controlled simplification of complex models. Forest models ranging from models describing processes in organs of individual tress in three-dimensional space to models averaging over all trees of an entire region, are reviewed, categorized by hierarchical level and represented in a general mathematical formulation. Possibilities and approaches of transitions between the approaches, namely linking of approaches and upscaling of individual based models are presented and discussed.

MSC:
91B76 Environmental economics (natural resource models, harvesting, pollution, etc.)
Software:
SPRUCOM
PDF BibTeX XML Cite
Full Text: DOI
References:
[1] Acevedo, Models of Forest Dynamics Based on Roles of Tree Species, Ecological Modelling 87 pp 267– (1996)
[2] Arney, Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation. Internat. Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Working party S4.01-4, Proc. of Meetings in 1973 30 pp 38– (1974)
[3] Belotelov, Modelling of Time-Dependent Biome Shifts under Global Climate Changes, Ecological Modelling 87 pp 29– (1996)
[4] Bolker, Using Moment Equations to Understand Stochstically Driven Spatial Pattern Formation in Ecological Systems, Theoret. Population Biol. 52 pp 179– (1997) · Zbl 0890.92020
[5] Bolker, Spatial Moment Equations for Plant Competition: Understanding Spatial Strategies and the Advantages of Short Dispersal, Amer. Naturalist 153 pp 575– (1999)
[6] B.M. Bolker S.W. Pacala S.A. Levin 1997 Moment Methods for Stochastic Processes in Continuous Space and Time Low-Dimensional Dynamics of Spatial Ecological Systems O. Diekmann J. Metz · Zbl 0890.92020
[7] Bossel, 2nd Ebernburger Working Conf., Erwin-Riesch-Workshop System Analysis of Biological Processes pp 46– (1987) · doi:10.1007/978-3-663-19445-3_4
[8] Bossel, Modelling Forest Dynamics: Moving from Description to Explanation, Forest Ecology Manage. 42 pp 129– (1991)
[9] Bossel, TREEDYN3 Forest Simulation Model, Ecological Modelling 90 (1996)
[10] Bossel, Simulation Model of Natural Tropical Forest Dynamics, Ecological Modelling 59 pp 37– (1991)
[11] Bossel, Simulation of Multi-Species Tropical Forest Dynamics Using a Vertically and Horizontally Structured Model, Forest Ecology Manage. 69 pp 123– (1994)
[12] Bossel, Simulation of Forest Stand Dynamics Using Real-Structure Process Models, Forest Ecology Manage. 42 pp 3– (1991)
[13] D.B. Botkin J.F. Janak J.R. Wallis 1970 A Simulator for Northeastern Forest Growth: A Contribution of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study and IBM Research Technical Report, IBM Research Report No. 3140
[14] Botkin, Rationale, Limitations and Assumptions of a Northeastern Forest Growth Simulator, IBM J. Research Development 16 pp 101– (1972a)
[15] Botkin, Some Ecological Consequences of a Computer Model of Forest Growth, J. Ecology 60 pp 849– (1972b)
[16] Brzeziecki, A Simulated Map of the Potential Natural Forest Vegetation of Switzerland, J. Vegetation Science 4 pp 499– (1993)
[17] Brzeziecki, Modelling Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Spatial Distribution of Zonal Forest Communities in Switzerland, J. Vegetation Science 6 pp 257– (1995)
[18] H. Bugmann 1994 On the Ecology of Mountainous Forests in a Changing Climate: A Simulation Study Diss. ETH Nr. 10638, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich
[19] Bugmann, Functional Types of Trees in Temperate and Boreal Forests: Classification and Testing, J. Vegetation Science 7 pp 359– (1996a)
[20] Bugmann, A Simplified Forest Model to Study Species Composition along Climate Gradients, Ecology 77 pp 2055– (1996b)
[21] Bugmann, Sensitivity of Forests in the European Alps to Future Climatic Change, Climate Research 8 pp 35– (1997)
[22] H. Bugmann A. Fischlin 1994 Comparing the Behaviour of Mountainous Forest Succession Models in a Changing Climate Mountain Environments in Changing Climates 237 255
[23] Bugmann, Simulating Forest Dynamics in a Complex Topography Using Gridded Climatic Data, Climatic Change 34 pp 289– (1996)
[24] Bugmann, Impacts of Global Change on Tree Physiology and Forest Ecosystems: Proc. of the Internat. Conf. on Impacts of Global Change on Tree Physiology and Forest Ecosystems (1997)
[25] Bugmann, The Use of a European Forest Model in North America: A Study of Ecosystem Response to Climate Gradients, J. Biogeography 22 pp 477– (1995)
[26] Bugmann, A Comparison of Forest Gap Models: Model Structure and Behavior, Climatic Change 34 pp 289– (1996)
[27] Burton, Potential Effects of Climatic Change on Some Western Canadian Forests, Based on Phenological Enhancements to a Patch Model of Forest Succession, Water Air Soil Pollution 82 pp 401– (1995)
[28] Busing, A Spatial Model of Forest Dynamics, Vegetatio 92 pp 167– (1991)
[29] Campbell, Forest Disequilibrium Caused by Rapid Little Ice Age Cooling, Nature (London) 366 pp 336– (1993)
[30] Chertov, Modern Approaches in Forest Ecosystem Modelling (1999)
[31] Clutter, Research Notes 30 pp 136– (1974)
[32] Dale, A Comparison of Tree Growth Models, Ecological Modelling 29 pp 145– (1985)
[33] Dale, Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling, Climatic Change 28 pp 65– (1994)
[34] Daniels, An Integrated System of Forest Stand Models, Forest Ecology Manage. 23 pp 159– (1988)
[35] D. Deutschmann 1998 Emergent Dynamics in a Forest Model: The Role of Local Competition and Limited Dispersal in Mediating Broad-Scale Patterns in SORTIE Paper presented at First Internat. Conf. on Mathematical Ecology, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
[36] Durrett, The Importance of Being Discrete (and Spatial), Theoret. Population Biol. 46 pp 363– (1994)
[37] Ek, Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation, Internat. Union of Forestry Research Orgs., Working party S4.01-4, Proc. of Meetings in 1973 30 pp 56– (1974)
[38] Erni, Ein Simulationsmodell für den Forstbetrieb Entwurf, Realisierung und Anwendung, Berichte der Eidgenössischen Anstalt für das Forstliche Versuchswesen 384 pp 1995– (1995)
[39] Fischlin, Sensitivity of a Forest Ecosystem Model to Climate Parametrization Schemes, Environ. Pollution 87 pp 267– (1995)
[40] Foley, Net Primary Productivity in the Terrestrial Biosphere: The Application of a Global Model, J. Geophys. Research 99 pp 20773– (1994)
[41] Friend, A Physiology-Based Gap Model of Forest Dynamics, Ecology 74 pp 792– (1993)
[42] Friend, A Process-Based, Terrestrial Biosphere Model of Ecosystem Dynamics (Hybrid v3.0), Ecological Modelling 96 pp 249– (1997)
[43] Fulton, A Computationally Efficient Forest Succession Model: Design and Initial Tests, Forest Ecology Manage. 42 pp 23– (1991)
[44] Grote, Simulated Impacts of Mean vs. Intra-Annual Climate Changes on Forests, The Impacts of Climate Variability on Forests 74 pp 255– (1998)
[45] Guisan, Predicting the Potential Distribution of Plant Species in an Alpine Environment, J. Vegetation Science 9 pp 65– (1998)
[46] Guisan, GLM versus CCA Spatial Modeling of Plant Species Distribution, Plant Ecology 143 pp 107– (1999)
[47] Guisan, On the Use of Static Distribution Models in Ecology, Ecological Modelling 135 pp 147– (2000)
[48] Hasenauer, A Crown Ratio Model for Austrian Forests, Forest Ecology Manage. 84 pp 49– (1996)
[49] Hauhs, A Model Relating Forest Growth to Ecosystem-Scale Budgets of Energy and Nutrients, Ecological Modelling 83 pp 229– (1995)
[50] Haxeltine, BIOME3: An Equilibrium Terrestrial Biosphere Model Based on Ecophysiological Constraints, Resource Availability and Competition among Plant Functional Types, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10 pp 693– (1996)
[51] Holdridge, Determination of World Plant Formations from Simple Climatic Data, Science 105 pp 367– (1947)
[52] Horn, Forest Succession, Scientific American 232 pp 90– (1975)
[53] Hurtt, Terrestrial Models and Global Change: Challenges for the Future, Global Change Biology 4 pp 581– (1998)
[54] Hutson, Use of Individual-Based Forest Succession Models to Link Physiological Whole-Tree Models to Landscape-Scale Ecosystem Models, Tree Physiology 9 pp 293– (1991) · doi:10.1093/treephys/9.1-2.293
[55] Karev, Structured Models of Pattern Formation of Tree Populations, Natur. Resource Modeling 14 pp 31– (2001) · Zbl 0985.92010
[56] Karev, Structural Models for Natural Forest Dynamics, Doklady Biological Sciences: Proc. of the Acad. of Sciences of the USSR 337 pp 354– (1994)
[57] Karev, On the Ergodic Hypothesis in Biocenology, Doklady Biological Sciences 353 pp 572– (1997) · Zbl 0960.92502
[58] Kaufmann, Prognosen und Nutzungsszenarien, Schweizerisches Landesforstinventar: Methoden und Modelle der Zweitaufnahme (19931995)
[59] Kellomäki, SIMA: A Model for Forest Succession Based on the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles with Application to Silvicultural Management of the Forest Ecosystem, Silva Carelica 22 pp 1– (1992) · doi:10.14214/sf.a15626
[60] F. Kienast 1987 FORECE- A Forest Succession Model for Southern Central Europe Technical Report ORNL-TM/10575, Oakridge Natl. Laboratories, Environmental Division, Oakridge, TN
[61] Kienast, Long-Term Adaptation Potential of Central Europe Mountain Forests to Climate Change: A GIS-Assisted Sensitivity Assessment, Forest Ecology Manage. 80 pp 133– (1996)
[62] M. Kirkilionis 1998 Modelling Forests: On Stochastic Processes Modelling Tree Distributions Paper presented at First Internat. Confer. on Mathematical Ecology, Sept. 1998, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
[63] M. Kirkilionis C. Bauch D. Rand 1999 Cluster Dynamics: Population Models with Stationary Individuals Preparation
[64] öhler, The Effects of Tree Species Grouping in Tropical Rainforest Modelling: Simulations with the Individual Based Model FORMIND, Ecological Modelling 109 pp 301– (1998)
[65] Kohlmaier, Effects of Age Class Distributions of the Temperate and Boreal Forests on the Global CO2 Source-Sink Function, Tellus 47B pp 212– (1995) · doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.47.issue1.18.x
[66] Kohyama, Simulating Stationary Size Distribution of Trees in Rain Forests, Annals of Botany 68 pp 173– (1991)
[67] Kohyama, Size-Structured Tree Populations in Gap-Dynamic Forest: The Forest Architecture Hypothesis for the Stable Coexistence of Species, J. Ecology 84 pp 207– (1993)
[68] Kohyama, Frequency Distribution of Tree Growth Rate in Natural Forest Stands, Annals of Botany 64 pp 47– (1989)
[69] Korzukhin, Process versus Empirical Models: Which Approach for Forest Ecosystem Management, Canad. J. Forest Research 26 pp 879– (1996)
[70] E. Kraev 1998 A Partial Differential Equation Modeling Forest Growth Master Thesis
[71] Kraev, Existence and Uniqueness for Height Structured Hierarchical Population Models, Natur. Resource Modeling 14 pp 45– (2001) · Zbl 1092.92046
[72] Kräuchi, Modelling Subalpine Forest Dynamics as Influenced by a Changing Environment, Water Air and Soil Pollution 68 pp 185– (1993)
[73] Kubo, Forest Spatial Dynamics with Gap Expansion: Total Gap Area and Gap Size Distribution, J. Theoret. Biology 180 pp 229– (1996)
[74] Kuerpick, The Influence of Logging on a Malaysian Dipterocarp Rain Forest: A Study Using a Forest Gap Model, J. Theoret. Biology 185 pp 47– (1997)
[75] R. Leemans I.C. Prentice 1989 A General Forest Succession Model , Technical Report, Institute of Ecological Botany
[76] Leemans, Determining the Potential Distribution of Vegetation, Crops and Agricultural Productivity, Water Air and Soil Pollution 76 pp 133– (1994)
[77] Levin, The Problem of Pattern and Scale in Ecology, Ecology 73 pp 1943– (1992)
[78] Lin, Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation, Internat. Union Forestry Research Orgs., Working party S4.01-4, Proc. of Meeting in 1973 30 (1974)
[79] Lischke, Veränderungen der Artenzusammensetzung der Schweizer Wälder bei einem schnellen Klimawechsel: Simulationsstudien, Bulletin: Kompe-tenzzentrum Holz 6 pp 12– (1998)
[80] H. Lischke A. Fischlin A. Lotter Untangling a Holocene Pollen Record with Forest Model Simulations and Independent Climate Data Ecological Modelling, submitted
[81] Lischke, A View from the Alps: Regional Perspectives on Climate Change pp 309– (1998a)
[82] Lischke, Aggregation of Individual Trees and Patches in Forest Succession Models-Capturing Variability with Height Structured Random Dispersions, Theoret. Population Biol. 54 pp 213– (1998b) · Zbl 0916.92028
[83] Liu, FORMOSAIC: An Individual Based, Spatially Explicit Model for Simulating Forest Dynamics in Landscape Mosaics, Ecological Modelling 106 pp 177– (1998)
[84] Löffler, Incorporation and Influence of Variability in an Aggregated Forest Model, Natur. Resource Modeling 14 pp 103– (2001) · Zbl 0994.91055
[85] A.F. Lotter F. Kienast 1992 Validation of a Forest Succession Model by Means of Annually Laminated Sediments Special paper series, Geological Survey of Finland, Lammi, Finland 25 31
[86] Lüdecke, The Frankfurt Biosphere Model: A Global Process-Oriented Model of Seasonal and Long-Term CO2 Exchange between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere, I. Model Description and Illustrative Results for Cold Deciduous and Boreal Forests, Climate Research 4 pp 143– (1994)
[87] Malanson, Effects of Dispersal and Mortality on Diversity in Forest Stand Model, Ecological Modelling 87 pp 102– (1996)
[88] Manrubia, On Forest Spatial Dynamics with Gap Formation, J. Theoret. Biol. 187 pp 159– (1997)
[89] Melillo, Global Climate Change and Terrestrial Net Primary Production, Nature (London) 363 pp 234– (1993)
[90] The Dynamics of Physiologically Structured Populations 68 (1986) · Zbl 0614.92014
[91] Mitchell, Dynamics and Simulated Yield of Douglas Fir, Forest Science Monographs 17 pp 39– (1975)
[92] Mladenoff, Environmental Modeling with GIS (1993)
[93] Moeur, Spatial Models of Competition and Gap Dynamics in Old, Growth Tsuga Heterophylla/Thuja Plicata Forests, Forest Ecology Manage. 94 pp 175– (1997)
[94] Munro, Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation, Internat. Union of Forestry Research Orgs., Working party S4.01-4, Proc. of Meetings in 1973 pp 7– (1974)
[95] Neilson, A Model for Predicting Continental-Scale Vegetation Distribution and Water Balance, Ecol. Appl. 5 pp 362– (1995)
[96] Pacala, Forest Models Defined by Field Measurements: Estimation, Error Analysis and Dynamics, Ecolog. Monographs 66 pp 1– (1996)
[97] Pacala, Forest Models Defined by Field Measurements: I. The Design of a Northeastern Forest Simulator, Canad. J. Forest Research 23 pp 1980– (1993)
[98] Details that Matter: The Spatial Distribution of Individual Trees Maintains Forest Ecosystem Function OIKOS 74 357 365
[99] Pastor, Influence of Climate, Soil Moisture, and Succession on Forest Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles, Biogeochemistry 2 pp 3– (1986)
[100] Perruchoud, The Response of the Carbon Cycle in Undisturbed Forest Ecosystems to Climate Change: A Reviewof Plant-Soil Models, J. Biogeography 22 pp 2603– (1995)
[101] Picard, Spatial Pattern Induced by Asymmetric Competition: A Modeling Approach, Natur. Resource Modeling 14 pp 147– (2001) · Zbl 0994.91056
[102] Potter, Terrestrial Ecosystem Production: A Process Model Based on Global Satellite and Surface Data, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7 pp 811– (1993)
[103] Prentice, A Global Biome Model Based on Plant Physiology and Dominance, Soil Properties and Climate, J. Biogeography 19 pp 117– (1992)
[104] Prentice, A Simulation Model for the Transient Effects of Climate Change on Forest Landscapes, Ecological Modelling 65 pp 51– (1993)
[105] H. Pretzsch Konzeption und Konstruktion von Wuchsmodellen für Rein- und Mischbestände Technical Report, Forstwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität München und der bayer. Forstlichen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt
[106] Roberts, Landscape Vegetation Modelling with Vital Attributes and Fuzzy Systems Theory, Ecological Modelling 90 pp 175– (1996)
[107] Running, Fore s t-BGC, A General Model of Forest Ecosystem Processes for Regional Applications. II. Dynamic Carbon Allocation and Nitrogen Budgets, Tree Physiology 9 pp 147– (1991) · doi:10.1093/treephys/9.1-2.147
[108] Ryan, Global Change: Effects on Coniferous Forests and Grasslands pp 313– (1996)
[109] J. Saldana M. Kirkilonis 1999 Modelling Forests: Height Structured Trees Paper presented at First Internat. Conf. on Mathematical Ecology, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
[110] Shugart, A Theory of Forest Dynamics: The Ecological Implications of Forest Succession Models (1984) · doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-8748-8
[111] Shugart, A Reviewof Forest Patch Models and their Application to Global Change Research, Climatic Change 34 pp 131– (1996)
[112] Shugart, Development of an Appalachian Deciduous Forest Succession Model and Its Application to Assessment of the Impact of the Chestnut Blight, J. Environ. Econom. Manage. 5 pp 161– (1977)
[113] Smith, A Theory of the Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Plant Communities, Vegetatio 83 pp 49– (1989)
[114] Smith, Scale and Resolution of Forest Structural Pattern, Vegetatio 74 pp 143– (1988)
[115] Solomon, Transient Response of Forests to CO2-Induced Climate Change: Simulation Modeling Experiments in Eastern North America, Oecologia 68 pp 567– (1986)
[116] Solomon, Past and Future Climate Change: Response by Mixed Deciduous-Coniferous Forest Ecosystems in Northern Michigan, Canad. J. Forest Research 22 pp 1727– (1992)
[117] Solomon, The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present 32 pp 235– (1985) · doi:10.1029/GM032p0235
[118] Solomon, Forest Succession: Concepts and Application (1981)
[119] Sorrensen-Cothern, A Model of Competition Incorporating Plasticity through Modular Foliage and Crown Development, Ecolog. Monographs 63 pp 277– (1993)
[120] Suzuki, Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation, Internat. Union of Forestry Research Orgs., Working party S4.01-4, Proc. of Meetings in 1973 pp 358– (1974)
[121] Talkkari, Development and Assessment of a Gap-Type Model to Predict the Effects of Climate Change on Forests Based on Spatial Forest Data, Forest Ecol. Manage. 83 pp 217– (1996)
[122] Tiktak, Reviewof Sixteen Forest-Soil-Atmosphere Models, Ecolog. Modelling 83 pp 35– (1995)
[123] Urban, Spatial Applications of Gap Models, Forest Ecol. Manage. 42 pp 95– (1991)
[124] Urban, The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States 3 pp 1– (1989)
[125] Vandermeer, Disturbance and Neutral Competition Theory in Rain Forest Dynamics, Ecolog. Modelling 85 pp 99– (1996)
[126] S. Will-Wolf D.W. Roberts 1993 Fire and Succession in Oak-Maple Upland Forests: A Modeling Approach Based on Vital Attributes John T. Curtis J.S. Fralish R.P. McIntosh O.L. Loucks Special Issue, Wisconsin Acad. of Science, Arts and Letters, Madison, WI, 217-236
[127] Williams, A Three-Dimensional Model of Forest Development and Competition, Ecolog. Modelling 89 pp 73– (1996)
[128] Woodward, Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis 100 pp 491– (1994)
[129] Woodward, A Global Land Primary Productivity and Phytogeography Model, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9 pp 471– (1995)
[130] Yan, Simulating the Carbon Storage Dynamics of Temperate Broadleaved Coniferous Mixed Forest Ecosystems: I. Dynamics of the Tree Layer of Broadleaved Korean Pine Forests in the Chagbai Mountains, Chinese J. Ecology 14 pp 6– (1995)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.