Toughness and the existence of k-factors. (English) Zbl 0598.05054

Finite undirected connected graphs G without loops and multiple edges are considered. If \(S\subset V(G)\), then by G-S denote the subgraph of G induced by the set V(G)-S and by w(G-S) the number of components of G-S.
A graph G is t-tough if the implication \(w(G-S)>1\Rightarrow | S| \geq t.w(G-S)\) holds for any \(S\subset V(G)\). The toughness of a graph was introduced by V. Chvátal who made also the following conjecture [Tough graphs and Hamiltonian circuits, Discrete Math. 5, 215-228 (1973; Zbl 0256.05122)]: If G is k-tough, \(| G| \geq k+1\) and \(k| G|\) is even, then G has a k-factor.
The main result of the present paper is the proof of this conjecture (Theorem 1). Further, the result is shown to be sharp: (Theorem 3): For \(k\geq 1\) and any positive \(\epsilon\), there exists a (k-\(\epsilon)\)-tough graph with \(k| G|\) even, \(| G| \geq k+1\) which has no k- factor.
Reviewer: St.Znám


05C70 Edge subsets with special properties (factorization, matching, partitioning, covering and packing, etc.)


toughness; k-factor


Zbl 0256.05122
Full Text: DOI


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