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Computation of viability kernels: a case study of by-catch fisheries. (English) Zbl 1282.91249
Summary: Traditional means of studying environmental economics and management problems consist of optimal control and dynamic game models that are solved for optimal or equilibrium strategies. Notwithstanding the possibility of multiple equilibria, the models’ users – managers or planners – will usually be provided with a single optimal or equilibrium strategy no matter how reliable, or unreliable, the underlying models and their parameters are. In this paper we follow an alternative approach to policy making that is based on viability theory. It establishes “satisficing” (in the sense of Simon), or viable, policies that keep the dynamic system in a constraint set and are, generically, multiple and amenable to each manager’s own prioritisation. Moreover, they can depend on fewer parameters than the optimal or equilibrium strategies and hence be more robust. For the determination of these (viable) policies, computation of “viability kernels” is crucial. We introduce a MATLAB application, under the name of VIKAASA, which allows us to compute approximations to viability kernels. We discuss two algorithms implemented in VIKAASA. One approximates the viability kernel by the locus of state space positions for which solutions to an auxiliary cost-minimising optimal control problem can be found. The lack of any solution implies the infinite value function and indicates an evolution which leaves the constraint set in finite time, therefore defining the point from which the evolution originates as belonging to the kernel’s complement. The other algorithm accepts a point as viable if the system’s dynamics can be stabilised from this point. We comment on the pros and cons of each algorithm. We apply viability theory and the VIKAASA software to a problem of by-catch fisheries exploited by one or two fleets and provide rules concerning the proportion of fish biomass and the fishing effort that a sustainable fishery’s exploitation should follow.

MSC:
91B76 Environmental economics (natural resource models, harvesting, pollution, etc.)
90B50 Management decision making, including multiple objectives
90B90 Case-oriented studies in operations research
49M30 Other numerical methods in calculus of variations (MSC2010)
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