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Spatiospectral concentration of vector fields on a sphere. (English) Zbl 1336.94024
Summary: We construct spherical vector bases that are bandlimited and spatially concentrated, or, alternatively, spacelimited and spectrally concentrated, suitable for the analysis and representation of real-valued vector fields on the surface of the unit sphere, as arises in the natural and biomedical sciences, and engineering. Building on the original approach of Slepian, Landau, and Pollak we concentrate the energy of our function bases into arbitrarily shaped regions of interest on the sphere, and within certain bandlimits in the vector spherical-harmonic domain. As with the concentration problem for scalar functions on the sphere, which has been treated in detail elsewhere, a Slepian vector basis can be constructed by solving a finite-dimensional algebraic eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalue problem decouples into separate problems for the radial and tangential components. For regions with advanced symmetry such as polar caps, the spectral concentration kernel matrix is very easily calculated and block-diagonal, lending itself to efficient diagonalization. The number of spatiospectrally well-concentrated vector fields is well estimated by a Shannon number that only depends on the area of the target region and the maximal spherical-harmonic degree or bandwidth. The spherical Slepian vector basis is doubly orthogonal, both over the entire sphere and over the geographic target region. Like its scalar counterparts it should be a powerful tool in the inversion, approximation and extension of bandlimited fields on the sphere: vector fields such as gravity and magnetism in the earth and planetary sciences, or electromagnetic fields in optics, antenna theory and medical imaging.

MSC:
94A12 Signal theory (characterization, reconstruction, filtering, etc.)
42B10 Fourier and Fourier-Stieltjes transforms and other transforms of Fourier type
94A17 Measures of information, entropy
Software:
sapa
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References:
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