# zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Offspring mortality was a determinant factor in the evolution of paternal investment in humans: an evolutionary game approach. (English) Zbl 1370.92109
Summary: Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs. Payoffs were computed as reproductive successes by a model based on trivial probabilities, implemented within the Barreto’s Population Dynamics Toolbox (2014). The evolution of the parent conflict was simulated by a game with two players (the woman and the man). First, a simple game was assayed with two strategies, ‘desert-unfaithful’ and ‘care-faithful’. Then, the game was played with a third mixed strategy, ‘care-unfaithful’. The two-strategy game results were mainly determined by the offspring survival rate $$(s)$$ and the non-paternity rate $$(z)$$, with remaining factors playing a secondary role. Starting from two empirical estimates for both rates ($$s=0.617$$ and $$z=0.033$$) and decreasing the offspring mortality from near 0.4 to 0.1, the results were consistent with a win for the ‘care-faithful’ strategy. The ‘desert-unfaithful’ strategy only won at unrealistically high non-paternity rates $$(z>0.2)$$. When three-strategy games were played, the mixed strategy of ‘care-unfaithful’ man could win the game in some less frequent cases. Regardless of the number of game strategies, ‘care’ fathers always won. These results strongly suggest that offspring mortality was the key factor in the evolution of paternal investment within the Homo branch. The ‘care-faithful’ strategy would have been the main strategy in human evolution but ‘care-unfaithful’ men did evolve at a lesser frequency. It can therefore be concluded that human populations, under most of the likely ecological situations, would arrive at a polymorphic state where alternative strategies might be present in significant quantity.
##### MSC:
 92D15 Problems related to evolution 91A80 Applications of game theory 91A22 Evolutionary games
##### Software:
GitHub; PDToolbox
Full Text:
##### References:
 [1] Anderson, K. G., How well does paternity confidence match actual paternity? evidence from worldwide non-paternity rates, Curr. Anthropol., 47, 3, 513-520, (2006) [2] Baker, R.; Bellis, M., Human sperm competition: ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation, Anim. Behav., 46, 5, 861-885, (1993) [3] Baker, R.; Bellis, M., Human sperm competition: ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm, Anim. Behav., 46, 5, 887-909, (1993) [4] Barreto, C., 2014. Population Dynamics Toolbox, 1-21. Retrieved from 〈https://github.com/carlobar/PDToolbox_matlab〉. [5] Bateman, A. J., Intra-sexual selection in drosophila, Heredity, 2, Pt. 3, 349-368, (1948) [6] Buss, D. M., Sexual strategies theory: historical origins and current status, J. Sex Res., 35, 1, 19-31, (1998) [7] Buss, D. M.; Schmitt, D. P., Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating, Psychol. Rev., 100, 2, 204-232, (1993) [8] Conroy-Beam, D.; Goetz, C. D.; Buss, D. M., Why do humans form long-term mateships? an evolutionary game-theoretic model, Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 51, 1, 1-39, (2015) [9] Daly, M.; Wilson, M., Evolutionary social psychology and family homicide, Science, 242, 4878, 519-524, (1988) [10] Darwin, C., The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex, (1871), John Murray London, UK [11] Dawkins, R., The selfish gene, (1976), Oxford University Press Oxford, UK [12] Dixson, A. F., Sexual selection and the origins of human mating systems, (2009), Oxford University Press Oxford, UK [13] Dixson, A. F., Primate sexuality, (2012), Oxford University Press Oxford, UK [14] Dunbar, R., Deacon’s dilemma: the problem of pair-bonding in human evolution, Proc. Br. Acad., 158, 155-175, (2010) [15] Geary, D. C., Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment, Psychol. Bull., 126, 1, 55-77, (2000) [16] Goetz, A. T.; Shackelford, T. K., Sexual conflict in humans: evolutionary consequences of asymmetric parental investment and paternity uncertainty, Anim. Biol., 59, 4, 449-456, (2009) [17] Goetz, A. T.; Shackelford, T. K.; Romero, G. A.; Kaighobadi, F.; Miner, E. J., Punishment, proprietariness, and paternity: men’s violence against women from an evolutionary perspective, Aggress. Violent Behav., 13, 6, 481-489, (2008) [18] Hewlett, B. S., Demography and childcare in preindustrial societies, J. Anthropol. Res., 47, 1, 1-37, (1991) [19] Hyde, J. S., The gender similarities hypothesis, Am. Psychol., 60, 6, 581-592, (2005) [20] Hrdy, S. B., Raising darwin’s consciousness: female sexuality and the prehominid origins of patriarchy, Hum. Nat., 8, 1-49, (1997) [21] Hrdy, S. B., The woman that never evolved, 266, (1999), Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA [22] Kim, P. S.; Coxworth, J. E.; Hawkes, K., Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering, Proc. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci., 279, 1749, 4880-4884, (2012) [23] Kim, P. S.; McQueen, J. S.; Coxworth, J. E.; Hawkes, K., Grandmothering drives the evolution of longevity in a probabilistic model, J. Theor. Biol., 353, 84-94, (2014) · Zbl 1412.92219 [24] Larmuseau, M. H.D.; Vanoverbeke, J.; Van Geystelen, A.; Defraene, G.; Vanderheyden, N.; Matthys, K.; Wenseleers, T.; Decorte, R., Low historical rates of cuckoldry in a western European human population traced by Y-chromosome and genealogical data, Proc. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci., 280, 1772, (2013) [25] Lloyd, E. A., Case of the female orgasm: bias in the science of evolution, (2005), Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA, USA [26] Lovejoy, C. O., The origin of man, Science, 211, 4480, 341-350, (1981) [27] Lovejoy, C. O., Reexamining human origins in light of ardipithecus ramidus, Science, 326, 5949, 74e1-74e8, (2009) [28] Marlowe, F. W., Paternal investment and the human mating system, Behav. Process., 51, 1-3, 45-61, (2000) [29] Marlowe, F. W., A critical period for provisioning by hadza men. implications for pair bonding, Evol. Hum. Behav., 24, 3, 217-229, (2003) [30] Marlowe, F. W., Hunter-gatherers and human evolution, Evol. Anthropol., 14, 54-67, (2005) [31] Maynard Smith, J. M., Parental investment: a prospective analysis, Anim. Behav., 25, 1-9, (1977) [32] Meehan, C. L.; Roulette, J. W., Early supplementary feeding among central african foragers and farmers: a biocultural approach, Soc. Sci. Med., 96, 112-120, (2013) [33] Nakahashi, W.; Horiuchi, S., Evolution of ape and human mating systems, J. Theor. Biol., 296, 56-64, (2012) · Zbl 1397.92763 [34] Petersen, J. L.; Hyde, J. S., Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors: a review of meta-analytic results and large datasets, J. Sex Res., 48, 2-3, 149-165, (2011) [35] Rees, T., 2004. An introduction to evolutionary game theory. 〈https://www.thelibrarybook.net/view.php?Res=http://www.cs.ubc.ca/ kevinlb/teaching/cs532a%20-%202004-5/Class%20projects/Tim.pdf&keyword=An+Introduction+To+Evolutionary+Game+Theory〉. [36] Sandholm, W. H., Evolutionary game theory, (Meyers, A. R., Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, (2009), Springer New York New York, NY), 3176-3205 [37] Shackelford, T. K.; LeBlanc, G. J.; Weekes-Shackelford, V. A.; Bleske-Rechek, A. L.; Euler, H. A.; Hoier, S., Psychological adaptation to human sperm competition, Evol. Hum. Behav., 23, 2, 123-138, (2002) [38] Stewart-Williams, S.; Thomas, A. G., The ape that thought it was a peacock: does evolutionary psychology exaggerate human sex differences?, Psychol. Inq., 24, 3, 137-168, (2013) [39] Stockley, P., Sperm competition in mammals, Hum. Fertil., 7, 2, 91-97, (2004) [40] Strassmann, B. I.; Gillespie, B., Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans, Proc. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci., 269, 1491, 553-562, (2002) [41] Strassmann, B. I.; Kurapati, N. T.; Hug, B. F.; Burke, E. E.; Gillespie, B. W.; Karafet, T. M.; Hammer, M. F., Religion as a means to assure paternity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 25, 9781-9785, (2012) [42] Symons, D., Evolution of human sexuality, (1979), Oxford University Press Cary, NC, USA [43] Trivers, R. L., Parental investment and sexual selection, (Campbell, B., Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971, (1972), Aldine Publishing Company Chicago, USA), 136-179 [44] Wilson, M.; Daly, M., Coercive violence by human males against their female partners, (Muller, M. N., Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans : An Evolutionary Perspective on Male Aggression against Females, (2009), Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA, USA), 271-291
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.