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Zero-correlation attacks: statistical models independent of the number of approximations. (English) Zbl 1411.94089

Summary: Multiple and multidimensional zero-correlation linear cryptanalysis have been two of the most powerful cryptanalytic techniques for block ciphers, and it has been shown that the differentiating factor of these two statistical models is whether distinct plaintexts are assumed or not. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding how these analyses can be universalized without any limitations and can be used to accurately estimate the data complexity and the success probability.
More concretely, the current models for multiple zero-correlation (MPZC) and multidimensional zero-correlation (MDZC) cryptanalysis are not valid in the setting with a limited number of approximations and the accuracy of the estimation for data complexity can not be guaranteed. Besides, in a lot of cases, using too many approximations may cause an exhaustive search when we want to launch key-recovery attacks. In order to generalize the original models using the normal approximation of the \(\chi^2\)-distribution, we provide a more accurate approach to estimate the data complexity and the success probability for MPZC and MDZC cryptanalysis without such approximation. Since these new models directly rely on the \(\chi^{2}\)-distribution, we call them the \(\chi ^{2}\) MPZC and MDZC models. An interesting thing is that the chi-square-multiple zero-correlation (\(\chi^{2}\)-MPZC) model still works even though we only have a single zero-correlation linear approximation. This fact puts an end to the situation that the basic zero-correlation linear cryptanalysis requires the full codebook under the known-plaintext attack setting.
As an illustration, we apply the \(\chi^{2}\)-MPZC model to analyze TEA and XTEA. These new attacks cover more rounds than the previous MPZC attacks. Moreover, we reconsider the multidimensional zero-correlation (MDZC) attack on 14-round CLEFIA-192 by utilizing less zero-correlation linear approximations. In addition, some other ciphers which already have MDZC analytical results are reevaluated and the data complexities under the new model are all less than or equal to those under the original model. Some experiments are conducted in order to verify the validity of the new models, and the experimental results convince us that the new models provide more precise estimates of the data complexity and the success probability.

MSC:

94A60 Cryptography

Software:

TEA ; XTEA
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