## Newton step methods for AD of an objective defined using implicit functions.(English)Zbl 1453.65105

Summary: We consider the problem of computing derivatives of an objective that is defined using implicit functions; i.e., implicit variables are computed by solving equations that are often nonlinear and solved by an iterative process. If one were to apply Algorithmic Differentiation (AD) directly, one would differentiate the iterative process. In this paper we present the Newton step methods for computing derivatives of the objective. These methods make it easy to take advantage of sparsity, forward mode, reverse mode, and other AD techniques. We prove that the partial Newton step method works if the number of steps is equal to the order of the derivatives. The full Newton step method obtains two derivatives order for each step except for the first step. There are alternative methods that avoid differentiating the iterative process; e.g., the method implemented in ADOL-C. An optimal control example demonstrates the advantage of the Newton step methods when computing both gradients and Hessians. We also discuss the Laplace approximation method for nonlinear mixed effects models as an example application.

### MSC:

 65H10 Numerical computation of solutions to systems of equations 26B10 Implicit function theorems, Jacobians, transformations with several variables 49M15 Newton-type methods 65K05 Numerical mathematical programming methods 65Y99 Computer aspects of numerical algorithms