Numerical study of the effects of injector needle movement and the nozzle inclination angle on the internal fluid flow and spray structure of a group-hole nozzle layout.

*(English)*Zbl 1443.76078Summary: In this study, we explored the spray behavior as a result of microscopic variations in the flow characteristics when the nozzle hole inclination angle was varied and the needle reciprocated. The volume fraction and viscosity contours were investigated at three needle modes of 0.01, 0.25, and 0.24mm using three nozzle inclination angles of \(10^\circ\), \(15^\circ\), and \(30^\circ\). We determined the relationship between the two key parameters of liquid viscosity (which developed in the sac-volume and nozzles) and volume vapor fraction in the injector with the spray characteristics and the equivalence ratio by considering different needle positions and inter-nozzle angles as objective variables. It was found that a lower included angle led to higher viscosity development in nozzles with low cavitation formation, whereas increasing the inclination angle increased the viscosity amplitude in the sac-volume section and decreased the viscosity in the nozzles, as well as yielding more cavitation formation along the nozzles. The lowest viscosity was obtained with an inclination angle of \(15^\circ\), which may facilitate the primary breakup process during spray atomization. The highest spray dispersion was achieved with a nozzle angle of \(15^\circ\), which was due mostly to higher cavitation and a lower spatial viscosity distribution. Comparisons of the model and experimental data demonstrated the validity of the predicted spray structures based on simulations in terms of penetration and the droplet diameter.

##### MSC:

76-10 | Mathematical modeling or simulation for problems pertaining to fluid mechanics |

76F65 | Direct numerical and large eddy simulation of turbulence |

##### Software:

AVL
PDF
BibTeX
XML
Cite

\textit{H. Taghavifar} et al., Appl. Math. Modelling 39, No. 23--24, 7718--7733 (2015; Zbl 1443.76078)

Full Text:
DOI

##### References:

[1] | Li, X. R.; Sun, Z. Y.; Du, W., Research and development of double swirl combustion system for a DI diesel engine, Combust. Sci. Technol., 182, 1029-1049, (2010) |

[2] | Lešnik, L.; Iljazˇ, J.; Hribernik, A., Numerical and experimental study of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a heavy-duty DI diesel engine running on diesel, biodiesel and their blends, Energy Convers. Manage., 81, 534-546, (2014) |

[3] | Ranz, W. E., Some experiments on orifice sprays, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 175, (1958) |

[4] | Bergwerk, W., Flow pattern in diesel nozzle spray holes, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 175, (1958), August 1958 |

[5] | C. Arcoumanis, H. Flora, M. Gavaises, M. Badami, Cavitation in real-size multi-hole diesel injector nozzles, SAE Paper 2000-01-1249, 2000. |

[6] | H. Roth, M. Gavaises, C. Arcoumanis, Cavitation initiation, its development and link with flow turbulence in diesel injector nozzles, SAE Paper 2002-01-0214, 2002. |

[7] | Sun, Zh.; Li, G.; Chen, Ch.; Yu, Y.; Gao, G., Numerical investigation on effects of nozzle’s geometric parameters on the flow and the cavitation characteristics within injector’s nozzle for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine, Energy Convers. Manage., 89, 843-861, (2014) |

[8] | Suh, H. K.; Lee, C. S., Effect of cavitation in nozzle orifice on the diesel fuel atomization characteristics, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29, 1001-1009, (2008) |

[9] | Payri, R.; Salvador, F. J.; Gimento, J.; Zapata, L. D., Diesel nozzle geometry influence on spray liquid-phase fuel penetration in evaporative conditions, Fuel, 87, 1165-1176, (2008) |

[10] | Som, S.; Ramirez, A. I.; Longman, D. E.; Aggarwal, S. K., Effect of nozzle orifice geometry on spray, combustion, and emission characteristics under diesel engine conditions, Fuel, 90, 1267-1276, (2011) |

[11] | Payri, R.; Ruiz, S.; Gimeno, J.; Marti-Aldaravi, P., Verification of a new CFD compressible segregated and multi-phase solver with different flux updates equations sequences, Appl. Math. Model., 39, 851-861, (2015) · Zbl 1449.76001 |

[12] | Salvador, F. J.; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Caballer, M.; De Alfonso, C., Study on the influence of the needle lift on the internal flow and cavitation phenomenon in diesel injector nozzles by CFD using RANS methods, Energy Convers. Manage., 66, 246-256, (2013) |

[13] | Shervani-Tabar, M. T.; Parsa, S.; Ghorbani, M., Numerical study on the effect of the cavitation phenomenon on the characteristics of fuel spray, Math. Comput. Model., (2012) · Zbl 1255.76098 |

[14] | Som, S.; Longman, D. E.; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K., A comparison of injector flow and spray characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel, Fuel, 89, 4014-4024, (2010) |

[15] | Battistoni, M.; Grimaldi, C. N., Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels, Appl. Energy, (2011) |

[16] | Park, S. H.; Suh, H. K.; Lee, C. S., Effect of cavitating flow on the flow and fuel atomization characteristics of biodiesel and diesel fuels, Energy Fuels, 22, 605-613, (2008) |

[17] | He, Zh.; Shao, Zh.; Wang, Q.; Zhong, W.; Tao, X., Experimental study of cavitating flow inside vertical multi-hole nozzles with different length-diameter ratios using diesel and biodiesel, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 60, 252-262, (2015) |

[18] | Zhong, W.; He, Zh.; Wang, Q.; Shao, Zh.; Tao, X., Experimental study of flow regime characteristics in diesel multi-hole nozzles with different structures and enlarged scales, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 59, 1-10, (2014) |

[19] | Shervani-Tabar, M. T.; Sheykhvazayefi, M.; Ghorbani, M., Numerical study on the effect of the injection pressure on spray penetration length, Appl. Math. Model., 37, 7778-7788, (2013) |

[20] | Y. Oishi, A. Miura, N. Hamazaki, Y. Watanabe, A computational study into the effect of the injection nozzle inclination angle on the flow characteristics in nozzle holes, SAE Paper 1992-24-28, 1992. |

[21] | A. Kilic, L. Schulze, H. Tschoke, Influence of nozzle parameters on single jet flow quantities of multi-hole diesel injection nozzles, SAE Technical Papers, 2006-01-1983, 2006. |

[22] | P. Bergstrand, I. Denbrantt, Diesel combustion with reduced nozzle orifice diameter, SAE Paper 2001-01-2010, 2001. |

[23] | Y. Hotta, K. Nakakita, T. Fuyuto, M. Inayoshi, K. Fujiwara, I. Sakata, Cause of exhaust smoke and its reduction methods in an HSDI diesel engine under high-speed and high-load conditions, SAE Paper 2002-01-1160, 2002. |

[24] | D. Nikolic, K. Wakimoto, S. Takahashi, N. Iida, Effect of nozzle diameter and EGR ratio on the flame temperature and soot formation for various fuels, SAE Paper 2001-01-1939, 2001. |

[25] | Gao, J.; Park, S. W.; Wang, Y.; Reitz, R. D.; Moon, S.; Nishida, K., Simulation and analysis of group-hole nozzle sprays using a gas jet superposition model, Fuel, 89, 3758-3772, (2010) |

[26] | Fire Software help, AVL, Version 8.5, 2005. |

[27] | Dukowicz, J. K.; Comp, J., A particle-fluid numerical model for liquid sprays, Physics, 35, 229-253, (1980) · Zbl 0437.76051 |

[28] | A.B. Liu, R.D. Reitz, Modeling the effects of drop drag and break-up on fuel sprays, 1993, SAE 930072. |

[29] | Salvador, F. J.; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Romero, J. V.; Rosello, M. D., Computational study of the cavitation phenomenon and its interaction with the turbulence developed in diesel injector nozzles by large eddy simulation (LES), Math. Comput. Model., 57, 1656-1662, (2013) · Zbl 1305.76047 |

[30] | O’Rourke, P. J., Statistical properties and numerical implementation of a model for droplet dispersion in turbulent gas, J. Comput. Phys., 83, (1989) · Zbl 0673.76065 |

[31] | Gosman, A. D.; Ioannides, E., Aspects of computer simulation of liquid-fueled combustors, AIAA, (1981), 81-323 |

This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.