Simultaneous reconstruction of emission and attenuation in passive gamma emission tomography of spent nuclear fuel.

*(English)*Zbl 1455.65239Summary: In the context of international nuclear safeguards, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recently approved passive gamma emission tomography (PGET) as a method for inspecting spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SFAs). The PGET instrument is essentially a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system that allows the reconstruction of axial cross-sections of the emission map of an SFA. The fuel material heavily self-attenuates its gamma-ray emissions, so that correctly accounting for the attenuation is a critical factor in producing accurate images. Due to the nature of the inspections, it is desirable to use as little a priori information as possible about the fuel, including the attenuation map, in the reconstruction process. Current reconstruction methods either do not correct for attenuation, assume a uniform attenuation throughout the fuel assembly, or assume an attenuation map based on an initial filtered back-projection reconstruction. We propose a method to simultaneously reconstruct the emission and attenuation maps by formulating the reconstruction as a constrained minimization problem with a least squares data fidelity term and regularization terms. Using simulated data, we show that our approach produces clear reconstructions which allow for a highly reliable classification of spent, missing, and fresh fuel rods.

##### MSC:

65R32 | Numerical methods for inverse problems for integral equations |

65K10 | Numerical optimization and variational techniques |

65Z05 | Applications to the sciences |

65D18 | Numerical aspects of computer graphics, image analysis, and computational geometry |

##### Keywords:

nonlinear problem; ill-posed inverse problem; passive gamma emission tomography; simultaneous reconstruction##### Software:

KELLEY
PDF
BibTeX
XML
Cite

\textit{R. Backholm} et al., Inverse Probl. Imaging 14, No. 2, 317--337 (2020; Zbl 1455.65239)

Full Text:
DOI

##### References:

[1] | Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, United Nations Treaty Series, 729, 1995, URL https://www.un.org/disarmament/wmd/nuclear/npt/text. |

[2] | C. Bélanger-Champagne; P. Peura; P. Eerola; T. Honkamaa; T. White; M. Mayorov; P. Dendooven, Effect of gamma-ray energy on image quality in passive gamma emission tomography of spent nuclear fuel, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 66, 487-496 (2019) |

[3] | Y. Berker; Y. Li, Attenuation correction in emission tomography using the emission data - A review, Medical Physics, 43, 807-832 (2016) |

[4] | S. Bonettini and M. Prato, New convergence results for the scaled gradient projection method, Inverse Problems, 31 (2015), 095008, 20pp. · Zbl 1333.90124 |

[5] | S. Bonettini, R. Zanella and L. Zanni, A scaled gradient projection method for constrained image deblurring, Inverse Problems, 25 (2009), 015002, 23pp. · Zbl 1155.94011 |

[6] | A. Bousse, A. Sidlesky, N. Roth, A. Rashidnasab, K. Thielemans and B. F. Hutton, Joint activity/attenuation reconstruction in SPECT using photopeak and scatter sinograms, in Proceedings of 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, Strasbourg, France, 2016, 1-4. |

[7] | S. C. Cade, S. Arridge, M. J. Evans and B. F. Hutton, Use of measured scatter data for the attenuation correction of single photon emission tomography without transmission scanning, Medical Physics, 40 (2013), 082506. |

[8] | Y. Censor; D. E. Gustafson; A. Lent; H. Tuy, A new approach to the emission computerized tomography problem: Simultaneous calculation of attenuation and activity coefficients, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 26, 2775-2779 (1979) |

[9] | V. Dicken, A new approach towards simultaneous activity and attenuation reconstruction in emission tomography, Inverse Problems, 15, 931-960 (1999) · Zbl 0945.65146 |

[10] | D. Gourion; D. Noll; P. Gantet; A. Celler; J.-P. Esquerre, Attenuation correction using SPECT emission data only, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 49, 2172-2179 (2002) |

[11] | M. Hanke, A regularizing Levenberg-Marquardt scheme, with applications to inverse groudwater filtration problems, Inverse Problems, 13, 79-95 (1997) · Zbl 0873.65057 |

[12] | W. G. Hawkins, C.-H. Tung, D. Gagnon and F. Valentino, Some new sourceless and source-assisted attenuation correction methods for SPECT and PET, in Proceedings of 1999 International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands, 1999, 84-87. |

[13] | T. Honkamaa, F. Levai, R. Berndt, P. Schwalbach, S. Vaccaro and A. Turunen, A prototype for passive gamma emission tomography, in Proceedings of Symposium on International Safeguards, Vienna, Austria, 2014. |

[14] | S. Jacobsson Svärd; S. Holcombe; S. Grape, Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 783, 128-141 (2015) |

[15] | S. Jacobsson Svärd; L. E. Smith; T. A. White; V. Mozin; P. Jansson; P. Andersson; A. Davour; S. Grape; H. Trellue; N. Deshmukh; E. A. Miller; R. S. Wittman; T. Honkamaa; S. Vaccaro; J. Ely, Outcomes of the JNT 1955 phase Ⅰ viability study of gamma emission tomography for spent fuel verification, ESARDA Bulletin, 55, 10-28 (2017) |

[16] | C. T. Kelley, Iterative Methods for Optimization, chapter 3.2.3 and 3.3.5, SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1999. · Zbl 0934.90082 |

[17] | A. Krol; J. E. Bowsher; S. H. Manglos; D. H. Feiglin; M. P. Tornai; F. D. Thomas, An EM algorithm for estimating SPECT emission and transmission parameters from emission data only, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 20, 218-232 (2001) |

[18] | A. Krol, I. Echeruo, R. B. Solgado, A. S. Hardikar, J. E. Bowsher, D. H. Feiglin, F. D. Thomas, E. Lipson and I. L. Coman, EM-IntraSPECT algorithm with ordered subsets (OSEMIS) for nonuniform attenuation correction in cardiac imaging, in Proceedings of SPIE, 4684 (2002), 6pp. |

[19] | L. A. Kunyansky, A new SPECT reconstruction algorithm based on the Novikov explicit inversion formula, Inverse Problems, 17, 293-306 (2001) · Zbl 0995.65142 |

[20] | F. Lévai, S. Dési, M. Tarvainen and R. Arlt, Use of High Energy Gamma Emission Tomography for Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies, Technical Report STUK-YTO-TR 56, STUK, Helsinki, Finland, 1993. |

[21] | S. H. Manglos and T. M. Young, Constrained IntraSPECT reconstruction from SPECT projections, in 1993 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Conf. Rec., vol. 3, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1993, 1605-1609. |

[22] | W. Marshall, B. J. Ade, S. Bowman and J. S. Martinez-Gonzalez, Axial Moderator Density Distributions, Control Blade Usage, and Axial Burnup Distributions for Extended BWR Burnup Credit, Technical Report NUREG/CR-7224, ORNL/TM-2015/544, prepared for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, TN, USA, 2016. |

[23] | M. Mayorov, T. White, A. Lebrun, J. Brutscher, J. Keubler, A. Birnbaum, V. Ivanov, T. Honkamaa, P. Peura and J. Dahlberg, Gamma emission tomography for the inspection of spent nuclear fuel, in Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2017. |

[24] | J. L. Mueller and S. Siltanen, Linear and Nonlinear Inverse Problems with Practical Applications, SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2012. · Zbl 1262.65124 |

[25] | J. Nuyts; P. Dupont; S. Stroobants; R. Bennink; L. Mortelmans; P. Suetens, Simultaneous maximum a posteriori reconstruction of attenuation and activity distributions from emission sinograms, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 18, 393-403 (1999) |

[26] | R. Reisenhofer; S. Bosse; G. Kutyniok; T. Wiegand, A Haar wavelet-based perceptual similarity index for image quality assessment, Signal Processing: Image Communication, 61, 33-43 (2018) |

[27] | A. Salomon; A. Goedicke; B. Schweizer; T. Aach; V. Schulz, Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation for PET/MR, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 30, 804-813 (2011) |

[28] | T. Schuster, B. Kaltenbacher, B. Hofmann and K. S. Kazimierski, Regularization Methods in Banach Spaces, De Gruyter, Berlin, Boston, 2012. · Zbl 1259.65087 |

[29] | A. O. Seppänen, Correction of Collimator Blurring and Attenuation in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, M.Sc. thesis, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, 2000. |

[30] | L. E. Smith, S. Jacobsson-Svärd, V. Mozin, P. Jansson, E. Miller, T. White, N. Deshmukh, H. Trellue, R. Wittman, A. Davour, S. Grape, P. Andersson, S. Vaccaro, S. Holcombe and T. Honkamaa, A Viability Study of Gamma Emission Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: JNT 1955 Phase I Technical Report, Technical Report PNNL-25995, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA, 2016. |

[31] | R. Thierry, J.-L. Pettier and L. Desbat, Simultaneous compensation for attenuation, scatter and detector response for 2D emission tomography on nuclear waste with reduced data, in 1st World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Buxton, United Kingdom, 1999,542-551. |

[32] | J. C. Wagner, M. D. DeHart and C. V. Parks, Recommendations for Addressing Axial Burnup in PWR Burnup Credit Analyses, Technical Report NUREG/CR-6801, ORNL/TM-200 1/273, prepared for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, TN, USA, 2003. |

[33] | Y. Wang; Y. Yuan, Convergence and regularity of trust region methods for nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems, Inverse Problems, 21, 821-838 (2005) · Zbl 1080.65045 |

[34] | Z. Wang; A. C. Bovik; H. R. Sheikh; E. P. Simoncelli, Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 13, 600-612 (2004) |

[35] | T. White, M. Mayorov, N. Deshmukh, E. Miller, L. E. Smith, J. Dahlberg and T. Honkamaa, SPECT reconstruction and analysis for the inspection of spent nuclear fuel, in Proceedings of 2017 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2017. |

[36] | T. White, M. Mayorov, A. Lebrun, P. Peura, T. Honkamaa, J. Dahlberg, J. Keubler, V. Ivanov and A. Turunen, Application of passive gamma emission tomography (PGET) for the verification of spent nuclear fuel, in Proceedings of 59th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2018. |

This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.