zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Connecting program synthesis and reachability: automatic program repair using test-input generation. (English) Zbl 1452.68052
Legay, Axel (ed.) et al., Tools and algorithms for the construction and analysis of systems. 23rd international conference, TACAS 2017, held as part of the European joint conferences on theory and practice of software, ETAPS 2017, Uppsala, Sweden, April 22–29, 2017. Proceedings. Part I. Berlin: Springer. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 10205, 301-318 (2017).
Summary: We prove that certain formulations of program synthesis and reachability are equivalent. Specifically, our constructive proof shows the reductions between the template-based synthesis problem, which generates a program in a pre-specified form, and the reachability problem, which decides the reachability of a program location. This establishes a link between the two research fields and allows for the transfer of techniques and results between them.
To demonstrate the equivalence, we develop a program repair prototype using reachability tools. We transform a buggy program and its required specification into a specific program containing a location reachable only when the original program can be repaired, and then apply an off-the-shelf test-input generation tool on the transformed program to find test values to reach the desired location. Those test values correspond to repairs for the original program. Preliminary results suggest that our approach compares favorably to other repair methods.
For the entire collection see [Zbl 1360.68015].
68N30 Mathematical aspects of software engineering (specification, verification, metrics, requirements, etc.)
Full Text: DOI
[1] Alur, R., Bodik, R., Juniwal, G., Martin, M.M., Raghothaman, M., Seshia, S.A., Singh, R., Solar-Lezama, A., Torlak, E., Udupa, A.: Syntax-guided synthesis. Dependable Softw. Syst. Eng. 40, 1-25 (2015)
[2] Anand, S., Păsăreanu, C.S., Visser, W.: JPF-SE: a symbolic execution extension to Java PathFinder. In: Grumberg, O., Huth, M. (eds.) TACAS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4424, pp. 134-138. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71209-1_12
[3] Artzi, S., Kiezun, A., Dolby, J., Tip, F., Dig, D., Paradkar, A., Ernst, M.D.: Finding bugs in dynamic web applications. In: ISSTA, pp. 261-272. ACM (2008)
[4] Attie, P., Cherri, A., Al Bab, K.D., Sakr, M., Saklawi, J.: Model and program repair via sat solving. In: MEMOCODE, pp. 148-157. IEEE (2015)
[5] Ball, T., Rajamani, S.K.: The SLAM project: debugging system software via static analysis. In: POPL, pp. 1-3. ACM (2002)
[6] Beyer, D., Henzinger, T.A., Jhala, R., Majumdar, R.: The software model checker BLAST. Soft. Tools Technol. Transf. 9(5-6), 505-525 (2007)
[7] Bloem, R., et al.: FoREnSiC - an automatic debugging environment for C programs. In: Biere, A., Nahir, A., Vos, T. (eds.) HVC 2012. LNCS, vol. 7857, pp. 260-265. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39611-3_24
[8] Cadar, C., Dunbar, D., Engler, D.R.: KLEE: unassisted and automatic generation of high-coverage tests for complex systems programs. In: OSDI, vol. 8, pp. 209-224. USENIX Association (2008)
[9] Cadar, C., Sen, K.: Symbolic execution for software testing: three decades later. Commun. ACM 56(2), 82-90 (2013)
[10] Clarke, E.M., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)
[11] Dallmeier, V., Zeller, A., Meyer, B.: Generating fixes from object behavior anomalies. In: ASE, pp. 550-554. IEEE (2009)
[12] Debroy, V., Wong, W.E.: Using mutation to automatically suggest fixes for faulty programs. In: Software Testing, Verification and Validation, pp. 65-74. IEEE (2010)
[13] Do, H., Elbaum, S., Rothermel, G.: Supporting controlled experimentation with testing techniques: an infrastructure and its potential impact. Empir. Softw. Eng. 10(4), 405-435 (2005)
[14] ExCAPE: Expeditions in computer augmented program engineering. http://excape.cis.upenn.edu. Accessed 19 Oct 2016
[15] Forrester, J.E., Miller, B.P.: An empirical study of the robustness of Windows NT applications using random testing. In: USENIX Windows System Symposium, pp. 59-68 (2000)
[16] Godefroid, P., Klarlund, N., Sen, K.: DART: directed automated random testing. PLDI 40(6), 213-223 (2005)
[17] Godefroid, P., Levin, M.Y., Molnar, D.A., et al.: Automated whitebox fuzz testing. In: Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, pp. 151-166 (2008)
[18] Gopinath, D., Malik, M.Z., Khurshid, S.: Specification-based program repair using SAT. In: Abdulla, P.A., Leino, K.R.M. (eds.) TACAS 2011. LNCS, vol. 6605, pp. 173-188. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19835-9_15 · Zbl 1315.68092
[19] Gulwani, S.: Automating string processing in spreadsheets using input-output examples. In: POPL, pp. 317-330. ACM (2011) · Zbl 1284.68700
[20] Gulwani, S., Harris, W.R., Singh, R.: Spreadsheet data manipulation using examples. Commun. ACM 55(8), 97-105 (2012)
[21] Jin, G., Song, L., Zhang, W., Lu, S., Liblit, B.: Automated atomicity-violation fixing. In: PLDI, pp. 389-400. ACM (2011)
[22] Jobstmann, B., Griesmayer, A., Bloem, R.: Program repair as a game. In: Etessami, K., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) CAV 2005. LNCS, vol. 3576, pp. 226-238. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi:10.1007/11513988_23 · Zbl 1081.68572
[23] Jones, J.A., Harrold, M.J.: Empirical evaluation of the Tarantula automatic fault-localization technique. In: ICSE, pp. 273-282. IEEE (2005)
[24] Kim, D., Nam, J., Song, J., Kim, S.: Automatic patch generation learned from human-written patches. In: ICSE, pp. 802-811. ACM (2013)
[25] Könighofer, R., Bloem, R.: Automated error localization and correction for imperative programs. In: FMCAD. IEEE (2011)
[26] Könighofer, R., Bloem, R.: Repair with on-the-fly program analysis. In: Biere, A., Nahir, A., Vos, T. (eds.) HVC 2012. LNCS, vol. 7857, pp. 56-71. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39611-3_11
[27] Li, G., Ghosh, I., Rajan, S.P.: KLOVER: a symbolic execution and automatic test generation tool for C++ programs. In: Gopalakrishnan, G., Qadeer, S. (eds.) CAV 2011. LNCS, vol. 6806, pp. 609-615. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22110-1_49
[28] Long, F., Rinard, M.: Automatic patch generation by learning correct code. In: POPL, vol. 51, pp. 298-312. ACM (2016)
[29] Mechtaev, S., Yi, J., Roychoudhury, A.: Angelix: scalable multiline program patch synthesis via symbolic analysis. In ICSE, pp. 691-701. ACM (2016)
[30] Miller, B.P., Fredriksen, L., So, B.: An empirical study of the reliability of UNIX utilities. Commun. ACM 33(12), 32-44 (1990)
[31] Necula, G.C., McPeak, S., Rahul, S.P., Weimer, W.: CIL: intermediate language and tools for analysis and transformation of C programs. In: Horspool, R.N. (ed.) CC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2304, pp. 213-228. Springer, Heidelberg (2002). doi:10.1007/3-540-45937-5_16 · Zbl 1051.68756
[32] Nguyen, H.D.T., Qi, D., Roychoudhury, A., Chandra, S., SemFix: program repair via semantic analysis. In: ICSE, pp. 772-781. ACM (2013)
[33] Nguyen, T., Kapur, D., Weimer, W., Forrest, S.: Using dynamic analysis to discover polynomial and array invariants. In: ICSE, pp. 683-693. IEEE (2012)
[34] Nguyen, T., Kapur, D., Weimer, W., Forrest, S.: Connecting program synthesis and reachability. Technical report, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, October 2016
[35] Rice, H.: Classes of recursively enumerable sets and their decision problems. Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 74(2), 358-366 (1953) · Zbl 0053.00301
[36] Saha, S., Garg, P., Madhusudan, P.: Alchemist: learning guarded affine functions. In: Kroening, D., Păsăreanu, C.S. (eds.) CAV 2015. LNCS, vol. 9206, pp. 440-446. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21690-4_26
[37] Sen, K., Agha, G.: CUTE and jCUTE: concolic unit testing and explicit path model-checking tools. In: Ball, T., Jones, R.B. (eds.) CAV 2006. LNCS, vol. 4144, pp. 419-423. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). doi:10.1007/11817963_38
[38] Singh, R., Gulwani, S., Solar-Lezama, A.: Automated feedback generation for introductory programming assignments. In: PLDI, pp. 15-26. ACM (2013)
[39] Solar-Lezama, A.: Program synthesis by sketching. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley (2008)
[40] Solar-Lezama, A., Arnold, G., Tancau, L., Bodík, R., Saraswat, V.A., Seshia, S.A.: Sketching stencils. In: PLDI, pp. 167-178. ACM (2007)
[41] Solar-Lezama, A., Rabbah, R., Bodík, R., Ebcioğlu, K.: Programming by sketching for bit-streaming programs. PLDI 40, 281-294 (2005)
[42] Srivastava, S.: Satisfiability-based program reasoning and program synthesis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland (2010)
[43] Srivastava, S., Gulwani, S., Foster, J.S.: From program verification to program synthesis. In: POPL, pp. 313-326. ACM (2010) · Zbl 1312.68068
[44] Srivastava, S., Gulwani, S., Foster, J.S.: Template-based program verification and program synthesis. Soft. Tools Technol. Transf. 15(5-6), 497-518 (2013)
[45] SyGuS: Syntax-guided synthesis competition. www.sygus.org. Accessed 19 Oct 2016
[46] Weimer, W.
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.