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**Use and communication of probabilistic forecasts.**
*(English)*
Zbl 07260607

Summary: Probabilistic forecasts are becoming more and more available. How should they be used and communicated? What are the obstacles to their use in practice? We review experience with five problems where probabilistic forecasting played an important role. This leads us to identify five types of potential users: low stakes users, who do not need probabilistic forecasts; general assessors, who need an overall idea of the uncertainty in the forecast; change assessors, who need to know if a change is out of line with expectations; risk avoiders, who wish to limit the risk of an adverse outcome; and decision theorists, who quantify their loss function and perform the decision-theoretic calculations. This suggests that it is important to interact with users and consider their goals. Cognitive research tells us that calibration is important for trust in probability forecasts and that it is important to match the verbal expression with the task. The cognitive load should be minimized, reducing the probabilistic forecast to a single percentile if appropriate. Probabilities of adverse events and percentiles of the predictive distribution of quantities of interest often seem to be the best way to summarize probabilistic forecasts. Formal decision theory has an important role but in a limited range of applications.

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\textit{A. E. Raftery}, Stat. Anal. Data Min. 9, No. 6, 397--410 (2016; Zbl 07260607)

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