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Precision medicine. (English) Zbl 1478.92079

Ashenden, Stephanie Kay (ed.), The era of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data science in the pharmaceutical industry. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. 139-157 (2021).
Summary: It has been shown that several diseases have genetic basis and bias. These changes such as mutations, copy number alteration, epigenetic changes, and RNA expression cause disease progression, adverse events, and drug resistance, among other physiological and pharmacological interferences to the patient. A key example here is tumor growth and metastasis to other organs. While medicine has always considered the individual patient’s situation and there is a long history of segmenting patient populations by data, the recent explosion of rich biomedical data and informatic tools has galvanized the idea of “precision medicine.” By identifying fundamental patient types, we can deliver “the right treatment for the right patient at the right time.” Similar ideas can be found in the “5 R” framework for effective drug development, which emphasizes that a drug must reach the right target, in right tissue, with the right safety profile in the right patient. Treatments can be selected that are most likely to help patients based on a molecular understanding of their disease, rather than a possibly deceptive clinical presentation. This is especially keen for the increasing number of high cost therapies with great variation in patient-to-patient outcomes, for example, checkpoint inhibitors. If we can correctly partition a patient population, we get more homogenous cohorts with shared disease states for mechanistic investigation. If we can subtype a trial population to one where a candidate drug will be effective, we can reduce the trial size. If smaller and rarer disease populations – often unrecognized or neglected in therapy development – can be detected within larger populations, they can be investigated and treated appropriately.
For the entire collection see [Zbl 1462.92005].

MSC:

92C50 Medical applications (general)
62P10 Applications of statistics to biology and medical sciences; meta analysis

Software:

NbClust; t-SNE; SVRc; clValid; rms
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References:

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