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Hopf bifurcation in three-species food chain models with group defense. (English) Zbl 0761.92039
Summary: Three-species food-chain models, in which the prey population exhibits group defense, are considered. Using the carrying capacity of the environment as the bifurcation parameter, it is shown that the model without delay undergoes a sequence of Hopf bifurcations. In the model with delay it is shown that using a delay as a bifurcation parameter, a Hopf bifurcation can also occur in this case. These occurrences may be interpreted as showing that a region of local stability (survival) may exist even though the positive steady states are unstable. A computer code BIFDD is used to determine the stability of the bifurcation solutions of a delay model.

MSC:
92D40Ecology
34C23Bifurcation (ODE)
34D99Stability theory of ODE
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