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Checking the Cox model with cumulative sums of martingale-based residuals. (English) Zbl 0788.62094
Summary: This paper presents a new class of graphical and numerical methods for checking the adequacy of the Cox regression model. The procedures are derived from cumulative sums of martingale-based residuals over follow-up time and/or covariate values. The distributions of these stochastic processes under the assumed model can be approximated by zero-mean Gaussian processes. Each observed process can then be compared, both visually and analytically, with a number of simulated realizations from the approximate null distribution.
These comparisons enable the data analyst to assess objectively how unusual the observed residual patterns are. Special attention is given to checking the functional form of a covariate, the form of the link function, and the validity of the proportional hazards assumption. An omnibus test, consistent against any model misspecification, is also studied. The proposed techniques are illustrated with two real data sets.

62P10 Applications of statistics to biology and medical sciences; meta analysis
62M99 Inference from stochastic processes
62-09 Graphical methods in statistics (MSC2010)
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