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**Twistless KAM tori, quasi flat homoclinic intersections, and other cancellations in the perturbation series of certain completely integrable Hamiltonian systems. A review.**
*(English)*
Zbl 0798.58036

Summary: Rotators interacting with a pendulum via small, velocity independent, potentials are considered. If the interaction potential does not depend on the pendulum position then the pendulum and the rotators are decoupled and we study the invariant tori of the rotators system at fixed rotation numbers: we exhibit cancellations, to all orders of perturbation theory, that allow proving the stability and analyticity of the diophantine tori. We find in this way a proof of the KAM theorem by direct bounds of the \(k\)-th order coefficient of the perturbation expansion of the parametric equations of the tori in terms of their average anomalies: this extends Siegel’s approach, from the linearization of analytic maps to the KAM theory; the convergence radius does not depend, in this case, on the twist strength, which could even vanish (“twistless KAM tori”). The same ideas apply to the case in which the potential couples the pendulum and the rotators: in this case the invariant tori with Diophantine rotation numbers are unstable and have stable and unstable manifolds (“whiskers”): instead of studying the perturbation theory of the invariant tori we look for the cancellations that must be present because the homoclinic intersections of the whiskers are “quasi flat”, if the rotation velocity of the quasi periodic motion on the tori is large. We rederive in this way the result that, under suitable conditions, the homoclinic splitting is smaller than any power in the period of the forcing and find the exact asymptotics in the two dimensional cases (e.g. in the case of a periodically forced pendulum). The technique can be applied to study other quantities: we mention, as another example, the homoclinic scattering phase shifts.

### MSC:

37J35 | Completely integrable finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, integration methods, integrability tests |

37K10 | Completely integrable infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian and Lagrangian systems, integration methods, integrability tests, integrable hierarchies (KdV, KP, Toda, etc.) |

70H05 | Hamilton’s equations |