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Key polynomials and a flagged Littlewood-Richardson rule. (English) Zbl 0819.05058
The authors study a family of polynomials \(k_ \alpha\) called key polynomials introduced by Demazure [see M. Demazure, Une nouvelle formule des caractères, Bull. Sci. Math., II. Sér. 98(1974), 163-172 (1974; Zbl 0365.17005)] for Weyl groups and investigated by Lascoux and Schützenberger (who called them standard bases) [see A. Lascoux and M.-P. Schützenberger, Keys & standard bases, Invariant theory and tableaux, Proc. Workshop, Minneapolis/MN (USA) 1988, IMA Vol. Math. Appl. 19, 125-144 (1990; Zbl 0815.20013)] in the case of symmetric groups. They gave several combinatorial descriptions of the key polynomials as well as an explicit formula for the expansion of Schubert polynomials as a positive sum of key polynomials. The authors show that a variant of the recent expression of Stanley [S. Fomin and R. P. Stanley, Schubert polynomials and the nilCoxeter algebra, Adv. Math. 103, No. 2, 196-207 (1994; Zbl 0809.05091)] for the Schubert polynomials yields a key polynomial, thus obtaining an independent proof of the aforementioned expansion. The preprint [W. Kraskiewicz and P. Pragacz, Schubert functors and Schubert polynomials] shows that Schubert polynomials may be viewed as characters of certain \(B\)-modules, where \(B\) is Borel subgroup of the general linear group. The authors give a similar interpretation for key polynomials, using one of the combinatorial descriptions of the key polynomials \(k_ \alpha\) to produce a basis for the corresponding \(B\)-module. This provides an independent and purely combinatorial proof of the Demazure character formula for Weyl groups of type A. They also give a flagged Littlewood-Richardson rule for expanding a flagged skew Schur function as a nonnegative sum of key polynomials. Moreover, they discuss conditions when key polynomials, Schubert polynomials, and flagged skew Schur functions coincide.

05E05 Symmetric functions and generalizations
05E10 Combinatorial aspects of representation theory
Full Text: DOI
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