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Some combinatorial properties of Sturmian words. (English) Zbl 0874.68245
Summary: We give a characterization of finite Sturmian words, by palindrome words, which generalizes a property of the Fibonacci words. We prove that the set \(St\) of finite Sturmian words coincides with the set of the factors of all the words \(w\) such that \(w=AB=Cxy\) with \(A\), \(B\), \(C\) palindromes, \(x\), \(y\in {a, b}\) and \(x\neq y\). Moreover, using this result we prove that \(St\) is equal to the set of the factors of all words w having two periods \(p\) and \(q\) which are coprimes and such that \(|w|\geq p+q-2\). Several other combinatorial properties concerning special and bispecial elements of \(St\) are shown. As a consequence we give a new, and purely combinatorial, proof of the enumeration formula of \(St\).

MSC:
68R15 Combinatorics on words
05A15 Exact enumeration problems, generating functions
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