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Adjoint modular Galois representations and their Selmer groups. (English) Zbl 0909.11025
Summary: In the last 15 years, many class number formulas and main conjectures have been proven. Here, we discuss such formulas on the Selmer groups of the three-dimensional adjoint representation \(\text{ad}(\varphi)\) of a two-dimensional modular Galois representation \(\varphi\). We start with the \(p\)-adic Galois representation \(\varphi_0\) of a modular elliptic curve \(E\) and present a formula expressing in terms of \(L(1,\text{ad} (\varphi_0))\) the intersection number of the elliptic curve \(E\) and the complementary abelian variety inside the Jacobian of the modular curve. Then we explain how one can deduce a formula for the order of the Selmer group \(\text{Sel(ad} (\varphi_0))\) from the proof of Wiles of the Shimura-Taniyama conjecture.
After that, we generalize the formula in an Iwasawa theoretic setting of one and two variables. Here the first variable, \(T\), is the weight variable of the universal \(p\)-ordinary Hecke algebra, and the second variable is the cyclotomic variable \(S\). In the one-variable case, we let \(\varphi\) denote the \(p\)-ordinary Galois representation with values in \(GL_2 (\mathbb{Z}_p [[T]])\) lifting \(\varphi_0\), and the characteristic power series of the Selmer group \(\text{Sel(ad} (\varphi))\) is given by a \(p\)-adic \(L\)-function interpolating \(L(1,\text{ad} (\varphi_k))\) for weight \(k+2\) specialization \(\varphi_k\) of \(\varphi\). In the two-variable case, we state a main conjecture on the characteristic power series in \(\mathbb{Z}_p[[T,S]]\) of \(\text{Sel(ad} (\varphi) \otimes \nu^{-1})\), where \(\nu\) is the universal cyclotomic character with values in \(\mathbb{Z}_p[[S]]\). Finally, we describe our recent results toward the proof of the conjecture and a possible strategy of proving the main conjecture using \(p\)-adic Siegel modular forms.

MSC:
11F80 Galois representations
11F33 Congruences for modular and \(p\)-adic modular forms
11G40 \(L\)-functions of varieties over global fields; Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture
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