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A maximum principle for optimally controlled systems of conservation laws. (English) Zbl 0935.49012
The authors consider an optimization problem for strictly hyperbolic systems of the type \[ u_t+ [F(u)]_x= h(t,x,u,z),\quad u(0,x)= \overline u(x), \] with distributed control \(z= z(t,x)\in Z\subset \mathbb{R}^p\), where \(u(t,x)\in \mathbb{R}^m\) while \((t,x)\in [0,T]\times \mathbb{R}\). The cost function has the form \(J(u)= \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} V(x,u(T,x)) dx\).
The main result is the following. Suppose \(h\), \(V\) and \(F\) are \({\mathcal C}^1\) (continuously differentiable) functions and each characteristic field for the system is either linearly degenerate or genuinely nonlinear; let the optimal control \(\widehat z=\widehat z(t,x)\) be a \({\mathcal C}^1\) function, and let the corresponding optimal solution \(\widehat u= \widehat u(t,x)\) be piecewise \({\mathcal C}^1\) and satisfy some additional regularity assumption; define the adjoint vector \((v^*,\xi^*)\) with terminal conditions \(v^*(T, x)= \nabla_uV(x,\widehat u(T,x))\), \(\xi^*_\alpha(T)= \Delta V(x_\alpha(T))\), \(\alpha= 1,\dots, N\).
Then the maximality condition \[ v^*(t,x)\cdot h(t,x,\widehat u(t,x),\widehat z(t,x))= \max_{z\in Z} v^*(t,x)\cdot h(t, x,\widehat u(t,x),z) \] holds at each point \((t,x)\) where both \(v^*\) and \(\widehat u\) are continuous.
The paper does not contain a non-trivial example of a system and a cost function that satisfy all the conditions of the theorem above.

49K20 Optimality conditions for problems involving partial differential equations
35L65 Hyperbolic conservation laws
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