How do bootstrap and permutation tests work? (English) Zbl 1028.62027

Summary: Resampling methods are frequently used in practice to adjust critical values of nonparametric tests. In the present paper a comprehensive and unified approach for the conditional and unconditional analysis of linear resampling statistics is presented. Under fairly mild assumptions we prove tightness and an asymptotic series representation for their weak accumulation points. From this series it becomes clear which part of the resampling statistic is responsible for asymptotic normality. The results lead to a discussion of the asymptotic correctness of resampling methods as well as their applications in testing hypotheses. They are conditionally correct iff a central limit theorem holds for the original test statistic. We prove unconditional correctness iff the central limit theorem holds or when symmetric random variables are resampled by a scheme of asymptotically random signs.
Special cases are the \(m(n)\) out of \(k(n)\) bootstrap, the weighted bootstrap, the wild bootstrap and all kinds of permutation statistics. The program is carried out for convergent partial sums of rowwise independent infinitesimal triangular arrays in detail. These results are used to compare power functions of conditional resampling tests and their unconditional counterparts. The proof uses the method of random scores for permutation type statistics.


62G09 Nonparametric statistical resampling methods
62G10 Nonparametric hypothesis testing
60F05 Central limit and other weak theorems
62G20 Asymptotic properties of nonparametric inference
Full Text: DOI


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