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**A penalized likelihood approach to image warping. (With discussion).**
*(English)*
Zbl 1040.62054

Summary: A warping is a function that deforms images by mapping between image domains. The choice of function is formulated statistically as maximum penalized likelihood, where the likelihood measures the similarity between images after warping and the penalty is a measure of distortion of a warping. The paper addresses two issues simultaneously, of how to choose the warping function and how to assess the alignment.

A new, Fourier-von Mises image model is identified, with phase differences between Fourier-transformed images having von Mises distributions. Also, new null set distortion criteria are proposed, with each criterion uniquely minimized by a particular set of polynomial functions. A conjugate gradient algorithm is used to estimate the warping function, which is numerically approximated by a piecewise bilinear function. The method is motivated by, and used to solve, three applied problems: to register a remotely sensed image with a map, to align microscope images obtained by using different optics and to discriminate between species of fish from photographic images.

A new, Fourier-von Mises image model is identified, with phase differences between Fourier-transformed images having von Mises distributions. Also, new null set distortion criteria are proposed, with each criterion uniquely minimized by a particular set of polynomial functions. A conjugate gradient algorithm is used to estimate the warping function, which is numerically approximated by a piecewise bilinear function. The method is motivated by, and used to solve, three applied problems: to register a remotely sensed image with a map, to align microscope images obtained by using different optics and to discriminate between species of fish from photographic images.