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Weaving Hadamard matrices with maximum excess and classes with small excess. (English) Zbl 1045.05023
Summary: Weaving is a matrix construction developed in 1990 for the purpose of obtaining new weighing matrices. Hadamard matrices obtained by weaving have the same orders as those obtained using the Kronecker product, but weaving affords greater control over the internal structure of matrices constructed, leading to many new Hadamard equivalence classes among these known orders. It is known that different classes of Hadamard matrices may have different maximum excess. We explain why those classes with smaller excess may be of interest, apply the method of weaving to explore this question, and obtain constructions for new Hadamard matrices with maximum excess in their respective classes. With this method, we are also able to construct Hadamard matrices of near-maximal excess with ease, in orders too large for other by-hand constructions to be of much value. We obtain new lower bounds for the maximum excess among Hadamard matrices in some orders by constructing candidates for the largest excess. For example, we construct a Hadamard matrix with excess 1408 in order 128, larger than all previously known values. We obtain classes of Hadamard matrices of order 96 with maximum excess 912 and 920, which demonstrates that the maximum excess for classes of that order may assume at least three different values. Since the excess of a woven Hadamard matrix is determined by the row sums of the matrices used to weave it, we also investigate the properties of row sums of Hadamard matrices and give lists of them in small orders.

05B20 Combinatorial aspects of matrices (incidence, Hadamard, etc.)
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